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The Arabs conveying Mrs. Bradley into CapUvily. 







fHB WIFE or Gapt. James Bradlrt^ of LivEnpooLy 
Commander of tHE Ship Sallt^ which was wftMCK* 


The Crew and Passengers of the above Ship fell in« 
to the hands of the Arabs, a few days after their 
Shipwreck, among whom unfortunately was Mrs. 
Bhadlet, who, after enduring incredible hard- 
ships during six months captivity (five of 
which she was scperatcd from her hu&band 
and every other civilized being) she was 
fortunately redeemed out of the hands 
of the unmerciful barbarians, by Mr. 
VViLLSHiaE, the British Consul, 
resident at Mogadore. 


go* The narrative of the Captivity and Sufferings of 
the unfortunate Mrs. Bradlby, is allowed by all those 
who have perused it to be the most affecting that ever 
appeared in print— yet, by the blessings of God, this 
amiable woman endured deprivation and hardship with 
incredible fortitude— in a barbarous land» skk became 
a Convert to the RELtGION of a Blessed Redeemer. 

BOSTON-'Piinlcd by James Walden— 1820. 

TO THE Am«iigan Edition. 

AS the present ajc U in era of adventure, and 
the field extensive on which enterprise may take he^r 
ran^f in consequence of the vtst modern improve- 
ments in the arts and sciences, it is tot surprizing 
that the press should bring to light numerous works 
of all descripiions. The facility of intercourse be- 
tween the various parts of the world, and the far 
and wide extensive stale oi commerce, iiavc given 
origin to many narratives of voyages and irayels as 
well as accounts of •hipwrecks, and the various dis- 
asters attendant on them. In works of this nature 
we read of numerous hair-breadth escapes, and as- 
tonishing interpositions of Divine Providence, on 
behalf of the concerned — together wi^h incidents 
ol so extraordinary a nature, that the mind is wrapt 
in astonishment — and as we peruse we are lost in -li^* 

wonder and amazement. 

The following circumstanlirtl account of sufferings 
almost beyond human endurance, is a little work of 
real merit. The simplicity of the langu*ge—ihc 
spirit of piety it breathes — and the morals it incul- 


catcs, cannot fail to cause it to be read with delight 
and edification by all those whose thoughts tend to 
serious reflection* If patience under affliciion con- 
stitutes one of the cardinal virtues, we there find it 
exemplified in our christian heroine, throughout the 
whole of her thorny peregrination. The occurrence 
of her shipwreck, captivity and deliverance, afford 
convincing proof of the omnipresence of the All- 
seeing Eye. We recommend its perusal to the at- 
tention of our young females in a particular man- 
ner, as Mrs. Bradley sets a shining example to hep 
9^yL m her struggles against the calamities of life^ 
under circumstances the most uncomfortable. 

This publication has passed through a number of 
editions in London- Ii was altered but very little 
from the original manuscript of Mrs, B. as the 
English publisher declares.— We therefore think it 
a work highly worthy of being patronized in this 
country, from the conciseness and simplicity of the 
style, and the religious fervor which it breathes.— 
The publishers of the European edition, from which 
this is copied being acquainted with the family of 
the writer of this narrative, and the circumstances 
©f the unfortunate voyage upon which it was found- 
cdj clearly demonstrates the truth of the facts con- 
tained in the following pages. 

Without any further remarks, we now submit the 
following interesting memoirs to the attention of the 
American public. 




I WAS born in Liverpool (Eng.) of creditable 
parents in the year 1783, — in the year 1802, at the 
age of 19, 1 vas married to Capt. Xames Bradley^ 
my present husband. Who, having been bred to 
the seas, was possessed of no other means of sup^ 
port, and knew of no other way to obtain a liveli- 
hood ; hence, my endeavors, after our marriage, to 
induce him to pursue some other occupation, at- 
tended with less dangers, proved unfortunately in- 
effectual. In May, 1818, my husband was appoint- 
ed to the command of the ship Sally, bound from 
Liverpool to Teneriffe : and I having expressed a 
wish to accompany him on a former voyage, to Ma- 
deira, he insisted on my accompanying him on this, 

The ship was freighted with all pos»ibtc dispilch, 
and on the morning of the 12th of May, wc embark- 
ed, thirty. two in number, comprising the ship's crew 
and passengers, of which 1 was the only female.— 
Nothing worthy of record traiispircd on our voyage, 
yntil nearly five weeks from the day of o*ir de- 
parture, when we experienced a tremrndouft storm, 
which continued to rage with unabatrd fury for »ix 
days, and to add to our distress, it was discovered 
that the ship, from the violent working; of the sea, 
had sprung a leak in several places ; both pumps 
were kept continually going, and were found aimoet 
insufficient to free the ship of water. The whole 
crew began now to turn their eyes upon my husband) 
who advised the immediate lightening of the skip, as 
tlic only measure ihat could be adopted to preserve 
•ur lives—the hatches v/ere torn up, and the ship 
discharged cf the most weighty part of her cargo, 
but the Etorni continued to ragc> and the leaks in- 
creasing, it was soon concluded by ihe officers ut- 
terly impossible to save i^liher the ship or their c.'- 
fecta ; the preservation -f even their lives becoming 
every moment more difficult to ihem> they now 
began to apply every thought and deed to that con- 
sideration. Since the commencement of the furious 
storm, they had not been enabled to keep any reckon- 
ing, and had been driven many leagues out ©f their 

Such was our perilous situation ficm the ifthto 
;he 2iih Jyne, in tlie evening of which the storr.) 

began t« abate — the morning ensuing, although tiie 
sea had become much more calm, there was so thick 
a fog, that the ship't crew found it impossible to 
discern an object three rods a-head of them, and to 
add to our consternation, by the colour of the water 
it nas discovered that we were on soundings, while 
the breakers were distinctly heard at the leeward— 
the storm had rendered the ship unmanageable, and 
flhe was considered so completely a wreck, that the 
officers thought it their wisest plan to put her before 
the wind, until they could discover the land, (which 
they imagined not far off) and then attempt the 
jraining the shore with the boats — but, the day clos- 
ed without any discovery of land being made, al- 
^ough the roar of the surf indicated that it could not 
ke far distant. The ship's crew, nearly worn down 
vrith fatigue, as many of them as could be spared 
off deck now sought a little necessary repose below : 
but, about midnight, they were suddenly aroused 
from their slumbers by the violent striking of the 
ship against a chain of rocks, and with so much vio- 
lence as to open her stern i Even the little hope 
that the ship's crew had till then preserved, seemed 
to fail them at once— on the instant, the ship rcsounil- 
cd with their lamentable exclamaiions, imploring the 
mercy of their Creator ! indeed to form an ade- 
quate idea of our distress, one must have been a 
^vitnc88 of it. The reader cannot suppose but tkai 
I too in a moment like this, must have shared the 
terrors of the crew ; but my fortitude, by the ble;- 

sings of Heaven, was much more probable than what 
would have been exhibited by maiiy females in my 
situation — the extremity of the n/i> fortune, vfith the 
certainty of its being inevitable, s rved to supply me 
■with a sort of seeming firmness. My poor husband, 
in his endeavors to reconcile me to my fate, seemed 
to forget his o^Tn perilous situation ; indeed his vis- 
ible steadiness and resolution happily imposed so 
far upon the whole crew, that it inspired them, even 
in the instant of destruction, with such confidence in 
him, that rendered them attentive and obedient to his 

Never could a night be passed in more wretch- 
edness ! the storm again gathered, and while the 
rain fell in torrents, the waves rising every instant, 
covered our bark, and rolled their mountains over 
our heads — in such a situation, stretched along on 
the outside of the hulk, fastening ourselves to every 
thing we could lay hold of, drenched through with 
pain, spent with the constant efforts we were obliged 
to exert against the fury of the waves, which en- 
deavored to wash us off from our hold, we at length 
perceived the morning's dawn, only to afford us a 
clearer view of the dangers we had passed, and 
those v?e had yet to encounter. 

This prospect of our situation appeared still more 
tremendous ; we perceived indeed, that we were 
not far from land, but we saw that it was impossible 
for us to reach it. The raging of the sea would have 
daunted the stoutest and most expert swimmer ; for 

the waves rolled with such fury, that whoever at- 
tempted to g«in the shore, must have run the risk 
of being launched back into the main ocean or dash- 
ed to pieces against the ship or shore. At this sight 
and reflecuon the whole crew was seized with the 
extremity of despair : their groans and exclamations 
redoubled, and were repeated with such strength 
and ferrency, that they were to be heard amidst the 
raging of the winds, the roaring of the thunder, and 
the dashing of the waves, which, all joined together, 
augmented the horror of the sound. 

The day was once more near closing, we reflect- 
ed with terror on ihc last night, and trembled be- 
forehand at that which was to come — there was in- 
deed a small boat attached to the ship, but in no con- 
dition to weather even the short passage that ap- 
peared to be between us and the land. We passed 
the night with feelings more horrible, if possible, 
than on ihs former ; the exhausted state we had been 
reiucfd to, by our past labor, left us hardly power 
to sustain the present. 

The iuccccding morning our spirits were a little 
revived by beholding the sun arise, a sight all abso. 
lutely despaired of, when we saw it setting, and 
when death, by putting an end to our calamities, 
would certainly be a blessing ; but the care of life, 
is the strongest passion in the human breast; it con-* 
tinues with us to the last moment of existence ; the 
miseries one feels may weaken, perhaps, but rarely 
Tilinguish it. Our first emotion, on findiug otir- 

— lo- 
st! vea sliil clineing fast to the feisel, was to oWtr 
up our ibinksgivings to Heaven, for having still prer 
lerved us alivey even in such a deplorable situation, 
10 raise up our suppliant hands in petition to Provi- 
dence, to complete its miracle, bj af?ording us some 
unforeseen means of escaping to the shore— there 
never was sure a more fervent prayer. Heaven at 
length, seemed to look down with compassion on our 
miseries and danger^the wind began to abate, and 
the various agitation of the sea to subside to that de- 
gree, that the officers conceived it possible for u* 
to reach the shore in the ship's boat. 

The boat was but small, it could not contain a- 
bove a third part of our number ; wt could not at- 
tempt to embark all at once without sinking it ; ev- 
*:r3r one was sensible of the difficulty, but no one 
would consent tc wait for a second passage ; thte 
fear of some accident happening to prevent a return* 
and the terror of lying another night exposed on the 
hulk, made every one obstinate for being taken in the 
first— it was however unanimously agreed by all, 
that my husband and myself should be ameng the 
number who should go first into the boat. The sea 
having now almost become a calm, the boat con- 
taining as many at it was thought prudent to take 
on board, left the wreck, and in less than half an 
hour we reached the ihore> and were all safely land- 
ed ; and were soon after joined by the remainder 
«^f the ship's crew, who were as ftrtunatt as our- 

asjvcs in retching the shore, tnd with as lUtlc iik"- 


Being now placed on dry land, we toon perceWcd 
tbal we had new difficulties to encounter ; higli 
craggy rocks nearly perpendicular, and of more thao 
two hundred feet in height, lined the shore as far as 
the sight could extend. The first care •f the 
crew was to seek among the articles floated ashore 
from the wreck, for planks and pieces of wood, to 
erect a covering for the night ; and they succeeded 
beyond their hopes — the right was extremely bois- 
terous, and nothing beneath us but sharp rocks on 
which to extend our wearied limbs, we obtained 
but Ihtle repose. Early the ensuing morning it was 
to onr sorrow discovered that but very little of lh« 
wreck was remaining, and those of the crew who 
were best able to walk, went to reconnoitre the shorcj 
and to see whether the sea had brought any frag- 
ments of the wreck ; they were 00 fortunate as to 
tind a barrel of f^our, and a keg of salt pork«— soon 
after they had secured these, the tide arose and pus 
an end to their labor. 

Captain Bradley now called together the ship's 
crew, and having divided the provision among them, 
ciquired of them if they consented to his continuing 
in the command ; to which they unanimously 
agreed — be then informed them, that from the best 
calculatious he could make, he had reason to believe 
that we were on the Barbary coast, and as we had 
i.o \vc!»pon5 of defence, much was to be apprelicnd- 

— 12— 

edlr^m the ferocity of the natives, if wc should be 
so unfortunate as to be discovered by tiiem. The 
coast appeared to be formed of perpendicular rocks 
to a great height, and no way could be discovered 
by which we might mount to the top of the preci- 
pices, so steep was the ascent. Having agreed to 
keep together, we proceeded along the sea side, in 
hopes to find some place of more easy ascent, by 
which we might gain the surface of land above us, 
where we were in hopes of discovering t spring of 
water with which to allay our thirst — after travelling 
many miles, we at length found the sought for paa- 
sjige, up a precipice, which resembled a flight of 
stairs, and seemed more the production of art than 
of nature. We soon gained the- summit of the 
cliffs ; but instead of springs of water, or groves to 
shelter us from the rays of the scorching sun, what 
was our surprise, to see nothing before us, but a 
barren sandy plain, extending as far as. the eye could 

The day was now drawing to a close, and des- 
pairing of meeting with relief, 1 threw myself upon 
the sand, and after wishing for death a thousand 
times, 1 resolved to await it on the spot where 1 lay*. 
Why should I go further to seek it, amidst new 
miseries I I was indeed so determined to die, that I 
awaited the moment with impatience as the termina- 
tion of my misery. Amid these melancholly re- 
flections, sleep at length overpowered me. My 
poor husband did. every thing in his power to al!c-. 


\S»tc my sufferings ; he represented to me the pre- 
bability of our meeting with friendly aid, by the 
means of which we might be conducted to some 
commercial port, at which we might probably obtain 
a passage for Europe. We passed the night at thii 
place, half buried in the sand. At the ^awn of day 
we again put forward, trayelling in a southeast di- 
rection. The cravings of hunger and thirst, be- 
came now more pressing than ever, and we founi 
nothing to appease them— before the close of the 
day we were, however, cheered by the account of 
one of the sailors who had been dispatched a-head 
on the look out, who informed us that he had trav- 
ersed the rocky borders of the shore, until he had 
discovered an extensive flat almost covered with 
mussels. We hastened to the spot, where we pasi- 
ed the night, and the next morning found ourselves 
so much strengthened, that we resolved to remain 
there the whole day, and the following night. 

At the dawn of day, we took our departure, and 
before the setting of the sun, it was conjectured that 
we had travelled nearly thirty miles ; but, without 
any prospect of relief— indeed every hour now 
seemed to throw a deeper gloom over our fate. 
Having in vain sought for a resting place, we were 
this night obliged to repose on the sands. This 
was indeed a crisis of calamity— the mif ery we un- 
derwent was too shocking to relate. Having ex- 
isted for three days without water, our thirst was 

— 14-r. 

-l©o great to be any longer endured. Early the cni- 
suing morning we resumed our journey, and as the 
sandy desert was found to produce noihing but a 
little wild sorril, it was thought sdviseablc again to 
direct our course along the sea shore, in hopes of 
finding some small shell- fish that might afford us 

\ some refreshment^ although but paorly calculated to 
\ allay our thirsts. 

j/^ . Believing from our present feelings that we could 
^ not possibly survive a day longer without drink, and 
no signs of finding any appearing, the last ray of 
luope was on the eve of fading away, when, about 
jnid-day, the second mate, (who had been sent for- 
vjard to make discoveries) returned to us with the 
joyful tidings that he had found a pool of brackish 
"water I a revelation from heaven could not have 
cheered us more I condueted by the mate, we hast- 
ened to the pool, which contamed about half a bar- 
rel of stagnated water ; but impure as it was, it serv.. 
ed as a very seasonable relief to us, for without 
something to allay my thirst, I am sure I should not 
have survived the night. Having at length succeed- 
ed in reaching the sea shore, we were miserably dis- 
appointed by the state of tke tides, which prevented 
our obtaining any kind of shell fish. 

The next day brought no alleviation of our mis- 
cries — necessity impelled us to proceed, though 
hope scarcely darted a ray through the gloom of our 
prospects. My dear husband seeming to forget his 
own miseries, did every thing in his power to alle* 


viate mine—from the time of our shipwreck, he was 
never heard once to murmur : but by precept a^ 
example! endeavored to keep up the spirits ofiho^e 
v?ho had as little cause to murmur as himself— for 
my own part, the miswies that 1 had endured since 
that melancholly event, had afforded me but little 
leisure to reflect upon the situation of any one but 
myself. At the fall of the tide, we were so fortunate 
as to find a few mussels, and then following the 
windini^s of the coast, we pursued our journey for 
three or four days, over sharp craggy rocks, where 
perhaps no human being ever trod before) uncertain 
which way to proceed, incommoded by tlxi heat, and 
exhausted by the fatigues of our march. In thi'i 
eur most deplorable situation, however, and at the 
very instant that wc were all nearly famished with 
hunger, Heaven was pleased to send us some relief 
when we least expected it — some of the crew who 
led the way, had the good fortune to discovers 
dead &eai on the beach — a knife bein^ in possession 
of one of them, they cut up their prey, dressed par^ 
of the flesh on the spot, and carried the rest with 

As we were now in possession of provision, and 
could not expect to find water by traversing the sea 
shore, it was thought most advisable once more to 
bend our course backward, m search of it amon^ 
th« barren sands ; for from our feelings we judged 
that we could not possibly survive a day longer with- 
out drink ; our tongues were nearly as dry jis 

iparcbed leather. Fear of meeting with the oativ^s 
(from whom they expected no mercy) appeared to 
%t the prerailing principle of the actions of most 6f 
the crew which must have been very powerful in 
them) when it was superior to the prevailing calls of 
hunger ihd thirst. As we traversed the sandy de- 
swt, we searched in rain for some sorts of nouriah- 
wient ; there were neither roots nor vegetables fit 
for eating to be found. Our thirst increased every 
moment, but the hope of being able to assuage it, 
sustained us every step, and enabled us to travel %n 
till the afternoon. We cast our eyes around, but 
cculd see nothing to rest our wearied sight upon, 
but a boundless end barren waste, extending on all 
sides. Such an horrid prospect threw us into the 
most shocking state of despair; our exhausted 
spirits died within us; we no longer thought of con- 
tinuing our hopeless and uncertain routCj in which 
we could not possibly foresee any end to our wants 
and miseries, except what we might have received 
upon the spot where we then laid ourselves down, 
from death alone— not uniii this moment did my 
fortitude forsake me— the weight of my misfortunes 
had uow become too heavy for my strength, or ra. 
ther weakness, to support— I felt as if the earth I 
pressed had been heaped upon me ! I exhorted my 
husband to leave me here, and to avail himself of 
the powers that he had yet remaining, to hasten for- 
ward to some inhabited part of the country, from 
whence he might have an opportunity of once more 

— ir— 

returning to his native land. My dear husband 
could only answer with tears and moans, while 1 
continued to persuade him to our seperation^ urging 
the absolute necessity of it, in Tain. " No, my dear 
wife (said he) I will never consent to abandon yoti» 
while life remains — with the Almighty nothing is 
impossible — if we put our trust in Hina, he may 
prove compassionate towards us and give us strength 
to pursue our journey, and support us in our trials 
—if it is His will that we should perish in a foreign 
land, far distant from kmdred^and friends, the will of 
God must be done, and we ought not to muf mur.— 
He certainly orders every thing in the best possible 
manner, and he who takes cave of the ravens, will 
not forsake his own children in the hour of afilic- 
tion." My husband now kneeled down by my side, 
and offered up a petition for our speedy relief; in 
which ho was joined by the whole crew. After our 
pious devotions were over, it was agreed by the com* 
pany that apart of their number should rewain with 
me, and the remainder (who were least fatigued), 
should go in search of water. 

The sun was now near setting, and I fill into a 
state of torpiid insensibility, without motion, and al- 
most deprived of all reflection, like a person between 
sleeping and waking; 1 felt no pain, but a certain 
Hatlessness and uncomfortable sensation affected my 
whole body. 

About two hours after the party had departed 
in search of water, they returned nearly out of 

>fe5th, and apparently much affrighted, and inform- 
j»d us that they had been pursued by a party of the 
natives (sonae of whom wcr« mounted on camels) 
and that they were then but a short distance frosi» 
us J they had scarcely finished their story, when a 
dreadful yell announced the arrival of their pursu- 
ers 1 Their appearance indeed was frightful, being 
nearly naked, and armed yrith muskets^ spears and': 

Our company having no weapons with which to- 
defend themselves, thcv approached and prQstrate4 
themselves at the feet of the Arabs (for such they 
proved to he) as a token of submission. This they ' 
did not however seem to regard, but seising us with 
all the ferocity of cannibals, they in an instant fttrip- 
ped us almost naked. For my own part, such had 
been my sufferings, that 1 no longer felt any fear 
of death — such was my thirst at this moment, that 1 
think I should have been willing to have exchanged 
TBy life fox a draught of fresh water. 

As soon as the Arabs finished stripping us, a warm 
contest arose among themselves, each claiming us 
individually as his proporty. This contest lasted 
for more than an hour, nor could 1 compare the 
combatants to any thing but hungry wolves contend- 
ing for their preyJ— scmetimcs we were laid hold of 
by a dozen of them at once, attempting to drag us 
off in different directions—they aimed deadly blows 
5it each other with their scimeiers, within two feet. 
«>J my hcM> aod inflicted wounds wUich laid ihe 

SesK of their bodies open *m the bone ? Bccrtmir/^g 
wearjr of the bloody contest an crtd Arab (who piob* 
ably was a chief) at length ccmni'drdcU ihtm to de- 
sist, and promisirifaf them, as I have sidcc learned, 
that vffc should be posscsstd by those only wliu had 
the besi claim lo us-— this poia toeing at Ifugth 
amicobiy teitlcd among therm, and each Arab having 
taken poasfbsion of vrliat had been apportio.jcd to 
hina as his rightful property, my husband by signs 
(exhibiting his mouih as parched and dry as the sand 
undei foot) gave them to unciersiand that our thir»t 
was too great to be any longer endured, and that' 
•if we were not provided with something immediate- 
ly to allay it, they must expect soon to be in posse«* 
sion of nothing but our dead carcasses ! 

As the Arabs appeared now to esteem us (poof 
."iiiscrabie objects] of too much value to suffer us t© 
perish for any thing within their power to afforii 
us, they drove up their camsls and took from the 
back of one of ti;em a goat skin, sewed up like a 
■wallet, and containing about four gallons of brack- 
ish slimy water, which they poured into a callabash 
and gave us to drink. Bad as this water was, and 
nauicous to the smell, i think we could have drank 
half a gallon each ; but having finished the con- 
tents of the skin, they refused us any more ; but 
pouuing tothceast^ gave us to understand that al- 
though water was with them a precious article, 
they iu a few days should arrive at a place where 

ilicy should obtain a plentiful supply, and we fnighl 
drink our fill. 

The Arabs now began to make prcparataon to 
depart— -the one by whom I was claimed, and who I 
»hall hereafter distinguish by the title of Masteb, 
was in ray view more savage and frightful in his ap- 
pearance, than ar»y one of the rest. He was about 
six feet in height, of a tawny complexion, and haJ 
no other clothing than a piece of woolen cloth 
wrapped round his body, and which extended from 
below his breast to his knees ; his hair was stout 
and bushy, and stuck up in every direction like brus- 
lles upon the b?xk of a hog ; his eyes were small 
but were red and fiery, resembling those of a ser- 
pent when irritated ; and to add to his horrid ap- 
pearance, his beard (which was of a jet black and 
cuily) was of more than afoot in length !~such ! 
assure the reader is a true description of the mon- 
ster, in human sfaape, by whom 1 was doomed to be 
held in servitude, and for what length of time, Hea- 
ven then only knew ! 

The draught of water with " which I had been 
supplied, having revived me beyond all expectation, 
my master compelling bis camel to knecJ, placed 
tne OQ his back. My situation was not so uncom- 
fortable as might be imagined, as they have sad- 
dlci constructed to suit the backs of these animals, 
and on which a person may ride with tolerable case 
•-•the saddle is placed on the camel's back before 
the hump, and secured by a rope iindcr his belly. 

—2 2 — 

Thus prepared, we set out, none of the captives 
being allowed to ride but myself. The unmerciful 
Arabs had deprived me of my gown, bonnet, shoee 
and stockings, anii kft me no other articles of clotb- 
ing but my petticoat and shimmy, which expos^'t 
my head and almost naked body to the blazing heat 
of the sun's darting rays. The fate of my poor hus- 
band, and his companions, was however still worse ; 
the Arabs had divested them of every article of 
clothing but their trousers ; aud while their naked 
bodies were scorched by the sun, the burning sand 
raised blisters upon their feet which rendered iheii' 
travelling intolerably painful. If any through ina- 
bility slackened his pace, or fell in the rear of the 
maia body, he was forced upon a trot by the appiica* 
tion of a sharp stick which his master carried in his 
hand for that purpose. 

About noon, we having signified to the Arabs our 
inability to proceed any further without some re- 
freshment, they came to a halt» and gave us about 
half a pint of slimy water each ; and for food some 
roasted insects, which 1 then knew not the name of, 
but afterward found were locusts, which abounded 
very much in some pans of the desert. In my then 
half starved state I am certaia that I never in my 
life partook of th© most palatable dish with half so 
good an appetite. Having refreshed, we were again 
hurried forward, and were not pc mitied to step 
again until about sunset, when the Arabs came it 
a halt for ihe night, and pitched t^ir tents— my 


master orilered me to dismount, and after he had 
turned his camel loose to feed upon the juicelcss 
shrubs that were thinly scattered about the tent, he 
presented me with about half a pint of water, and a 
kandful more of the insects 1 after which 1 was 
permitted to lie down in the tent, to repose for the 
night ; this was an indulgence that was not allowed 
the other captives, and would not probably have 
been allowed me, had it n( t been for my very weak 
atate, which caused my masterio fear^ that without 
proper attention, he might lose his property ; for it 
appears (by what I have since learned) that they 
considered us of about as much rslue as theit cam- 
els, and to preserve our lives were willing to use 
us with about as much care and attention. My poor 
husband and his companions were compelled to take 
up their lodging on the dry sand, with nothing but \he 
canopy of heaven to cover themt I this night, as I 
did every succeeding night before I closed my eyes, 
returned thanks to Almighty God for preserving me 
and enabling me to bear up under my heavy afflic- 
tions during the day past ; to Him I looked, and on 
Him alone depended, for a deliverance from bitter 
captivity— .nor did I each morning fail to return 
Him thanks for his goodness in preserving me 
through the night. 

At day ligh) we were called on to proceed. The 
Arabs struck their tents, and I was placed as before 
en my master's camel ; while the other captives 
were compelled to hobble along on foot as well as 
ihey eculU, A few moments befere we commenced 

^ «»23 — 

otrr jeurney, I v/as pciniitted to exchange a few 
words vilh my I ubltand — be informed me with 
t«ars in his eyes, that his bodily strength began to 
fail him, and that if he did not meet with better 
treatment, he was fearful that he should not survive; 
mat^y days 4 in the ni^an time expressing a hope that 
®od would preserve my life, and again restore me 
to my fiit;ndf I comfaricd him a*! I couid, assur* 
«d him that if we put our trust in God, He. certainly 
Would remember mercy in the midst of judgment? 
and would so far restrain the wrath of our enemicsj 
as to prevent their »urderiag us. And the mor^ to 
encourage him, I then repeated the two following 
texts of scripture — " I shall not die but live : And 
declare the woiks of the Lord. * Psalms cxviii 17;— 
'< Why art thou cast down, O sciv soul ? And why 
an thou disquitttd with me ? Hope thou in God i 
for I shall yet prair<e him. who is the health of my 
countenance, and my God'* Psalms xiii. II. 

By sunrise we were again on our march, and 
travelled until night, over a sandy desert, without 
sight of any living creature but ourselves — sands and 
skies were all that presented to view, except now 
and then small spots of suriburnt moss — indeed be- 
fore us, as far as eye-sight could extend, presented 
a dreary prospect of sun burnt plains without grass^ 
^tick or shrub. Some of my poor unfortunate fel- 
low captives being unable 10 proceed any further^ 
the Arabs came to a halt a little before sunset ; and 
pitched their tcntS;2md iiav in g unloaded their cam- 

cl», they dispatched two of their companions Witha 
camel to the west. We were now presented with 
a like quantity of water and food, as on the day pro- 
ceeding, and permitted to lie down under a corner 
of a tent to rest our wearied limbs. Here I had 
another opportunity to eonyerse with my husband) 
and to witness more minutely the wretched condition 
of my other companions in distress ; some of whom 
appeared to be on the ere of exchanging a world of 
trouble and sorrow for a better^ The sustenance al- 
lowed them was hardly sufficient to keep the breath 
ef life in them — having been depiived of nearly all 
their clothing, and their bodies exposed to the sum 
they were rendered so weak, emaciated and sore» 
that they could scarcely stand*— they al) thought that 
they could not live another day ! I exhorted them 
not to fail to call on the Supreme Being in a proper 
manner for help, as He alone had power to deliver 
them from the hands of their unmerciful masters ; 
and if ever so fortunate as to meet with a deliver- 
ance, and to be once more restored to their families 
and friends, never to let it be said of them as of Is- 
rael — ^" They forgat his works, and the wonders he 
shewed them ; they remembered not his hand, nor 
the day that he delivered them from the enemy.*' 

A little after sunset, the two Arabs who had been 
dispatched with the tamel to the west, returned, 
drWing the beast before them — as soon as they reach- 
ed the tent we discovered thai th«y had brought a 
SiliiB of fresh fyater (which they probably had been in 

quest of) aad a quantity of a small ground rooi, 
which in appearance, resembled European ground- 
nuts, md were equally as agreeable to the taste. Of 
tht watar they allowed ui nearly a pint each, which 
was a seasonable relief, for without it, 1 am cer- 
tain that some of my companions would not have 
survived the night. It was pleasing to nae to wit- 
ness the apparent gratitude, which every one of the 
crew now manifested toward Him, who had wrought 
their deliverance from immediate starvation«»after 
we had pftrtaken of our scanty meal, it was proposed 
by me that we should all kneel, and individually re* 
turn ihaijks to God, for this wonderful proof of hit 
infinite goodness— a proposition that was cheerfully 
agreed to by all, the Arabs in the mean time stand- 
ing over us, apparently much diverted with a view 
of the altitude in which we placed our bodies during 
our pious devotions. 

The ensuing morning we started very early, trav» 
elling west, and about noon arrived at the well fronB 
which the water brought us had been obtained the 
day previous — the well had the appearance of having 
been dug many years, and contained five or six feet 
of water, of a quality too inferior to be drank by our 
meanest brutes, if any better could be obtained** 
Preparaiiens were now made to water the camelsj 
they having never drank a drop to our knowledge 
since the day we fell into tho hands of the Arabs. -• 
Troughs sufficiently large to contain half a barrel 
'^as filled twice, and the whole drat.k by a single 

camel — nature seems to have formed these animals 
for the express purpose of crossing the sandy dc" 
sarts, and when watered, to drink a sufficient quan» 
tity to last them trom four to six weeks; wai this 
rot the case, they certainly must perish in travelling 
from well to well, which are situated many miles 
fiom each other. For my own part, so great was 
the quantity of water given to the camels, that i was 
tindei very serious apprehetuion that none would be 
Jelt for us ; for so great now was our thirst, that 
had we been permitted, we would have gladly thrust 
in our heads, and drank out of the same trough with 
the camels i but this we were not allowed to do? 
nor would they allow us Jo approach the well until 
the camels had been supplied with as much water as 
they could drink ; this being done, the troughs 
were next filled for us, when we were permitted {in 
imitation of the camels) to kneel down, thrust in our 
heads and drink until wc were satisfied. 1 am 
confident, that I drank three pints, and wiihout pro- 
ducing the serious effects that one would apprehend 
after suffering so much from thirst. I now by signs 
begged of my master for something to eat ; but he 
gave me only a very small quantity of the roots 
heretofore de^cribed, at the same time by feigns, giv- 
ing nie to undtrstand that in two or three days, we 
should reach the place of their destination, where hia 
family dwelt, and who would supply me with as 
much food as 1 should want. 

The Arabs next proceeded to fill their goatskins 

— 2r^ 

wiih water, vrhich having done, they slung them on 
each side of their camels— the camel belonging to 
my master was next ordered to kneel, and I again 
placed on his back — tbus prepared we again resum- 
ed our journey, xra veiling east. The face of the 
dcsart in every direction had still the same barren 
appearance, and at noon day the rays of the sun had 
a most powerful effect upon our almost naked bo- 
dies — having been deprived of my bonnet, and hav- 
ing nothing to defend my head from the sun*s scorch" 
ing rays, the pain that 1 endured was extremely ex- 
cruciating ; yet, I praised God that I was not doom- 
ed to walk on foot and at night to lie in the scorch- 
ing sands, as my fellow sufferers were compelled 
to do.. During the day we continued our dreary 
route wiihout the discovery of any thing that could 
serve to relieve the cravings of nature—we con- 
tinued however to travel until eight o'clock in the 
evening, when the Arabs came to a halt, and pitched 
their tents for the night To altempt to describe 
|he situation of my poor husband, as well as the rest 
of his unfortunate fellow-captives, at this time, would 
be a impossible for any one to do but those 
who witnessed it. The sun had scorched and blis- 
tered our bodies from head to foot ; I will not pre- 
tend to describe their feelings ; the compassionate 
reader will paini our distress in his imagination in 
stronger colours than can be described by words* 
We had nothing now left to eat ; our masters, how» 
^ver. bad the humanity to give us as much water a^ 


we could drink, and after returning thanks to heaven 
ss usual, for our preservation through the day, we 
retired to seek repose lor the night. 

The next morning we were ordered early to arise 
and prepare for our journey ; but three rf my un- 
fortunate fellow captives (one of whom was a lad of 
but 15 years of age) signified to their masters, by 
signs, liieir inability to proceed one step further un- 
less ihcy were provided with some sustenance, of 
which ihcy had been deprived for the last thii ty-six 
liours. The unmerciful Araba thereupon became 
greatly enraged, and beat those who had complained 
of their we&kness most unmercifully ; but the blows 
inflicted upon the poor wretches, only increased 
their inabiruy to travel. The Arabs finding that 
blows had no effect, and unwilling to part with any 
of us, they next consulted together what was best to 
be done to preserve our lives, it being evident to 
them that none of us could survive another d?.y 
without some kind of nourishment, of >hich they 
were thcm.selves now destitute ; they at length a- 
greed to kill one of their camels ; and the one on 
which I rode, being the oldest of the drove, they ob- 
tained the consent of my master to butcher that ; 
the busiaess being thus settled, they began to make 
preparation for the slaughter. They compelled the 
poor animal to kneel down in the usual manner, as 
when about to be relieved from or to receive a load 
and then wiih a rope hauling his head back ncai If 

— 29— 

to his rump, they wuh one of their scymeters, ^t 
his throat ; the blood they caught in a bucket as it 
flowed fron\ the wound, f.ud were extremely careful 
not to lose a drop— such was our hunger at this 
time, that we wculd have gladly drank it as it stream- 
ed warm from the beast. Indeed such was the state 
of Djur stomachs, that I am cocfident that we should 
not have loathed animal food even in a state of pu- 
trefaction I 

The camel was now dressed by the Arabs in much 
the same manner as the Europeans dress a butcher- 
ed ox ; but there was not a panicle of any thing' 
belonging to the carcase, but was esteemed of too 
much value to be wasted : even the hide and entrails 
were carefully preserved. The Arabs, assisted by 
the captives, next busied themselves in g^lh«ring 
small twigs and dry grass, with which to cook a part 
of the animal. The blood was first poured into a 
copper kf ttle, and set on the fire to boil, the Aralis 
siirring it viih slicks until it became a thick cake ; 
this being done, the entrails (with very little cleans- 
ing) was next deposited in the kettle and set on the 
nre to bake or stew, after which the whole was- dis- 
tributed among the captives to eat ; this was a re- 
lief that none of us anticipated when we arose in the 
morning; nor did I fail on this occasion to pour out 
my ^oul in rapturous, effusions of thankfulness to the 
Supreme Being ; nor did I find it very difficult to 
persuade my fello*? captives to folio's;' my example^— 

this, our woudcrful deliverance, wbile on the very 
brinkof starvation, was to me another proof of the 
mercy and goodness of God, and that with us in the 
present instance he had eminently fulfilled the word 
eontaincd in Psalms cvi. 46 : '' He made them also 
to be pitied, of all those that caiiied them captives*** 
While we were devouring the food allotted uSf 
the Arabs were employed ia cutting up and roast- 
ing the carcase, which done, they, like ravenous 
volves, devoured moie ib;nhaIfof it, and the re- 
remainder drp^siied in their bags slung upo.i their 
camels. Preparations were now made for our de- 
parture. I begged of my master to indulge me with 
the privilege of conversing a few moments with my 
husband, bcioie we reasiaumed our journey, as h« 
had informed me, in a few words the evening pre- 
vious, that he had soniething important to comaiu* 
nicatr ; after a good deal of persuasion the indul- 
gence was granted me, and my husband having beg- 
fjed the same indulgence and obtained the same lib- 
erty of his master, we were permitted to seat our- 
selves in one ccrner of the tent to converse. My 
husband now informed me that by what he could 
h.nn from the Arabs, (as they were of different 
clars,) we were soon to b esepeiated andf conveyed to 
diflfeccDt pirts of the country, and retained as cap. 
tives, until they could have an opportunity to dis- 
pose of us to some of their brethren bound to the 
capital of Morocco, where an English consul resided^ 

and of whom they expecud a good price, as they 
knew it was his duty to redeem all the European 
captives that should fall into their hands That he 
had done ail in his powtr to persuade his master to 
purchase me, to prevent our seperation, but without 
any success; his master informing him that my 
my master could not be persuaded to part with me,' 
as he well knew that the English Consul would 
pay double price for the redemption of a female 
captive ; that he then by signs gave him to under* 
atand that the female captive was his wife, and that 
that the Consul would give him four times the sum 
f{.r the redemption of both together, (that they might 
be each other's compat y to their own cuuiitry) than 
he woukl to be obliged o redeem them seperatcly 
at different periods: but his'^aster could not be 
persuaded either to purchase rre or to part with him. 
Here my poor husbimd concluded by observing, that 
as I was used withless severity by the natives than 
any of the other captives, he hoped that 1 should be 
so fortunate as once more to gain my liberty, by the 
intercession of some friend who might hear of my 
ceptivity ; but, as for himself, he had become so ex. 
trcmt^Iy feeble, in const qucncc of the treatment 
\ihich he met with from the natives, that he des- 
paired of living to regain his liberty. I begged of 
him not to despair, while life remained — that if he 
put his trust in God, he would be his friend, and not 
forsake him, but in his own good time restore us ul* 
k> our liberty and to our friends ; that it might prove 

^ood for us that we were thus afflicted, aiicj as God 
certainly knew bebt,\Ahat was for our gocd, w€ 
ought to pray ihai God's '.vill be doije ; thai the Al- 
mighty had enabled ua thus far to surmount diftkul- 
tie*, and to perform lediouji jourj eys each day of ma- 
ny miles, when we cci^ceived it tun.ost impossible 
for us in the morning to travel ha;f the distance. 
My husband now told me that lie hiid been informed 
by one of the sailors that his ma>iet' had taken a bi- 
ble from him which he found in his knapsack, and 
which the Arab had sliii in his possession ; which 
being of no uae to him> as he could not read it, he 
•thought he might be persuaded by my master to 
pan with it if seasonable application was madc'-— 
This was indeed pleasing news to me, as in case of 
ii scperation from my poor husband 1 could find in 
this sacred To'ume that consolation \vhich no hu- 
man power on earth could afford jne. 

The hoarse voices of our misters were no>v heard, 
commanding us to sepcrate and prepare to continue 
our journey* Since the camel en which I rode had 
been slain, not a thought until this moment entcreij 
my mind whether I should any longer be thus in* 
dulgedorbe compelled like the other captives to 
lyavel on foot ; if the latter was their intention I 
was certain that my situation would be infinitely 
worse than that of my husband ; for as the Arabs 
had robbed me of my shoes and stockings, were 
they to compel mc thus tio travel they would rery 
roon find the neceesity cf either leaving ms behifldi 

to perish with burger, or of Jlspatchir.g w\q at onco 
with their scymeters ; but, my anxious doubts were 
veyy soon removed by the appearance of my mas- 
ter, leading a camel, Nrhich being compelled to 
kneel, I was ordered to mourvt. 

Wc set forward in an easterly direction, and m 
consequence of the food with which we had been 
supplied^ travelled with much belter spirits than we 
had done for many days before — a little before sun- 
set, we came to a well of tolerable good water, 
where were a large company of Arabs \v Atari ig 
their camels; the strangers were all armed with 
muskets, and were double our number. Our masters 
were ail mounted, but instantly leaped off their 
camels, and unsheathing their guns, prepared for 
action, should the strangers prove enemies. They 
approached us hastily with a horrible shout — I cx- 
pected^r.ow to see a battle ; but when they had ar- 
rived within half gun-shot of us, they stepped short 
and demanded who we were ? what cnunlry wo 
(the slaves) were ? and where our masters had found 
us? To which questions my master briefly replied) 
assuring ihem that the place where wc had been 
shipwrecked was but a very short distance, not more 
than two drivs travel; and that they had left the 
beach strewed with many articles of inestimablo 
value, which they were unable to bring nv;ay with 
Ihcm— this was a stratagem made use of by my 
master, to prevent the strangers molesiing us ; for 
33 they live by stealing, they conceive that p.cper>5r 

belongs lo no one, unless he has power lo defend it. 

The strangers, elated with the prospect of obtaining 
their share of booty, hastily naounted their cancels 
and departed for the place, where our masters as- 
sured ihem they would find the wreck, and the 
valuable property they had described to them.— 
They were, to the very great satisfaction of out 
masters, scon out of sight, and left us in peaceable 
possession of the welK Here we had once more an 
oppcrtunity to quench our thirst, but not however 
until the camels and their masters had drank their 

As the sun bad now set, a dispute commenced be- 
tween the Arabs whether we should pitch our tents 
here for the night, or proceed a few miles further. 
It was argued by those who were against stopping 
here, that the Arabs who had gone in quest of the 
wreck, might alter their minds and return in the 
c-ourse of the night, and possess themselves of their 
prisoners. As an Arab had rather part with his life 
than his property, it did not reqi.ire much argu« 
TT.ent to satisfy those who were a? first of a differ- 
ent opinion, that to proceed to a place of more safe- 
ty, would he the wisest step. Having filled their 
pkins with water, and permitting us to take a second 
draught, they quit the well near an hour after sun* 
•, and alter ascending and desccndirg prodigious 
Jiifrs of dry sand uiiiil our sirenglh had become 
nearly exhausted, our masters at length found a 
3nvg retreat s".jrrcu-i:Icd on al! sid&s by high sand 


drifts. As it was nearly midnight, they thought it 
not worth while to pitch their tents, but compelled 
us to lie down in the deep sane!, and charged us not 
to exchange a word with each other, or make the 
least noise. Here, in our most exhausted state^ 
were we compelled to lie on the bare ground, with, 
out the smallest shelter from the heavy dews of tho 
night, and enduring beside the cravings of hunger, 
excruciating pains in all our limbs. Our masters 
accustomed to such hardships, did not even con^" 
plain of fatigue. 

As soon as day light appeared, they allowed u^ 
a small portion of what remained of the camel, af- 
ter which we were called upoD again to pursue 
our journey. The Arabs were exceeding careful in 
iheir preparations to depart, not lo make the least 
noise, and forbid our uttering a word, least they 
should be discovered by an enemy more powerful 
than themselves. By sun rise we were on our 
march— they compelled my husband and his poor 
fellow- captives to keep up with the camels, although 
iheir feet were extremely sore and swollen — for my 
own piri (next to hunger and thirst) the most that 1 
had endured was from the scorching rays of the 
sun beating upon my bare head ; but having now 
gone so long bare-headed, my head had become ac- 
custcmcd to the heat, a»id though it remained uncov- 
ered, it did not pain me. Since ray capiiviiy, I had 
many times begged of my master that he would re 
turn me my bonnet, as the only means by which he 

ecu Id CKpect to preserve my life ; but he always, 
by signs, gave me to understand that it was the 
property of another, who would not be prevailed up- 
on to part with it. 

The desert now before us had the same sandy ap, 
pe^ ranee we had before observed— .all was a dreary, 
solitary waste, without a tree or shrub to arrest the 
view within the horizon. Wc continued on our 
route, however, as well as our situation would ad- 
mit, until an hour after sunset, when the Arabs 
pitched their tents as usual, and we were permitted 
to retire to rest, although our extreme hunger (hav- 
ing eaten nothing but a morsel of camel's flesh for 
the last 24 hours) deprived us of sleep In the 
morning, so reduced were many of the captives, by 
fatigue and hunger, that they were scarcely enabled 
te stand on their feet. It was in vain that the cruel 
Arabs beat them unmercifully, *o force ihem to re- 
new their journey— their legs were too weak to sup- 
port even their emaciated bodies. The Arabs be- 
came at length satisfied that food must very soon 
be obtained, or they should lose some of their pris- 
oners. While they were debating on what was to 
be done, the fresh tracks of camels were discovered 
by some of the company, a short distance to the 
west of where we were encamped. The Arab^- 
seemed overjoyed at the discovery, and eight or ten 
of them ruounied on the best cam^^ls, set out in pur" 
suit of the travellers, to beg a supply of provisionf*' 
]if frignds, and to take it by force, if enemies. 

As we were likely to remain here soiHe time (at 
icait till the return of those who had been dispatch- 
ed in quest of provision) I solicited «iid wts so fortu- 
nate as to be allowed the. privilege of another inter- 
view with my poor unfortunate husband. I found 
him laboring under a still greater depression of spi- 
rits, than when I last had the privilege of convers- 
ing with him— he said thtt every hour now seemed 
to throw a deeper gloom over his fate, and that na- 
ture could not possibly hold out but a short time 
longer I and, indeed, that such was the state of 
wrelchednesa to which he was reduced, th«t (as re- 
garded himself) death was stripped of all its terrorg! 
I once more remindad him of the power •f the AU 
mighty to relieve us, and of the nccc ssity of relying 
on his mercy — that through his divine good»ess, we 
ought to be thankful that our lives had been so long 
miraculously preserved — that although our afflic* 
lions had been very great, and might still be even 
greater, yet the Lord was able to support us» and 
might in due season be pleased to effett our due de- 
liverance ; as he had declared to us in Ptalms 6, 
15. ^' And call upon me in the day of trouble, I will 
deliver thee, and thou »halt glorify me." 

My husband now informed mc, thai his suspicions 
that we were to be scperated and conveyed to dif- 
ferent parts of the desert, without a prospect of see- 
ing each other again, had been confirmed by the 
declaration of the chief cf the clan,wiih whom he bad 
had much conTcrsation respecting our future dt sti- 

oy — the chief giving him to undeT8tand« that it was 
the intention of our masters to retain us as slaves 
tintil an opportunity should present to dispose of ua 
to some of their countrymen bound to the Moorish 
dominions, where a high price would be paid for us 
by the Sultan's friend (Briti«h Consul) that he had 
tried to prevail upon him to purchase me, and to 
convey us both lo Morocco (or Marockish as the 
Arabs term i) where he assured him Tve had friend&t 
■^ho would pay a haiKlsome price f»r us ; but with- 
out any success— his master assuring him, that ray 
jBaster couid not be prevailed upon to part with me, 
for all tiio property he was worth, and that he woubl 
not engage to convey him (my husband) to Morock- 
ish ior the price of his life ; as he should have to 
pass through many tdbes with whom they were a* 
^ar — ** thus my dear wife (concluded my husband) 
you see that the prospect of our speedy redemption 
is very small, and I am confident that if our captivityi 
continues a month longer, and we are not treated 
with more lenity, not one of us will be found alive, 
for every oie of my unfortunate fellow captives are 
if possible, in a more deplorable situation than my. 

Such indeed as had been represented by my hu»« 
Ikin4, was the situation of ihesc victims of misfiat^ 
tunc ; overwhelmed with fatigue, unable to obtaifi 
repose, tormented with hunger, and consigned, 
tvithout any human assistance, into the hands of 
mercilesa barbarians. These ferocious monsters. 


whenever they utteiHid a murmur, appeared so en* 
raged against them, that when they spoke to them» 
the fire flashed from their eyes, and the white, so* 
perceptible in the Moors and Arabs, could not be 
distinguished — and even in their most debilitated 
state, they were guarded with such vigilance, that 
an Arab with a spear or a musket in his hand) at- 
tended them upon every occasion ; the barbariane 
being apprehensive that (hey might escape, or that 
their prey might be taken froiia them by force. 

The Arabs sent in pursuit of the travellers return- 
ed about noon, and brought with them the bones and 
entrails of a kid, a small portion of which the;/ gave 
to us. It was sweet to our taste, though hut a mor- 
sel, and we pounded, chewed and swallowed all the 
bones. They nftw finished their last sack of water- 
having taken a plentiful drink themselves, they gave 
■us the relicks, which was inferior to bilge water.— 
The Ar&bs having concluded to proceed no farther* 
this day, they had the humanity to suffer the weak- 
est of the captives to lodge at night ur^dera comer 
of their tent. The ensuing morning they compelled 
Bs to start as soon as it was light, and travelled ve- 
ry fast until noon, when they came to a halt to let 
their camels breathe, and feed on a few shrubs that 
were thinly scattered among the sand drifts, Wc 
were here so fortunate as to find a few snails, which 
the captives were privileged to roast and eat, which 
in some measure allayed the cravings of hunger-^ 
having thus refreshed, w-e were ordered by our mas- 

ters once more to put forward, /and taking a north' 
caitcrly course, travelled rapkily through prodi- 
gious • -''drifts until late in the evening — my niaa- 
ter by words and signs encouraging me, that if ray 
strength did not fail, he should reach his village the 
flay ensuing ; where I should be plentifully sup- 
plied vith victuals and drink. The Arabs having 
iound a convenient spot, pitched their tent, and 
•gain gave us permission to occupy a corner of it ; 
but being allowed nothing this night wherewith t© 
allay our hunger, our fatigues and sufferings may 
be more easily conceived than expressed ; yet as wo 
were sheltered from the dews of the night, we slepi 
very soundly until we were roused up to eonticue 
our journey. 

The next day about noon we had the good fortune 
to discover a well of pure water— this was a happy 
circan.s.ance, Cor having been deprived ^f that pre* 
cjous article for the last twenty-four hoyrs, our mis- 
ery from thirst had become so iniolerable, that some 
of the captives had been induced to attempt to make 
use of that as a substitute, which decency forbids 
me to mention. For this unexpected relief, our 
souls were oTerwhelm«d with joy ; nor did we fail 
to raise our eyes and hearts to heaven, in adoration 
and silent thankfulness, while tears of gratitude 
trickled down our haggard cheeks. While our 
masters were watering their camels, and filling theif 
sacks, some of the captives had pern^isslon to go a 
short distance in search of snails, and were §^, 

^41 — 

fo'tunate as to co'iicct, in less thaa half an hcu.^, 
about three quarts, which, after being loasted, were 
shared among the captires. 

During our Ijalt at this place, I have yet another 
circunvstance to record, which I then esteemed,, and 
still esteem of more importance tp roe, if possible, 
than even the discovery of the well of water. My 
master having ordered me to dismount, that h« 
might water his camel, I seated myself on a hard 
sand drift, a few rods from the tvell— here 1 remain- 
ed until 1 saw him returning, leading his camel- 
as he approached, I perceived that he had some- 
tiling in his hand, and on his near approach, what 
were my emotions^ to find that it was the sacred 
volume, that my hiisband informed me was in pO€- 
session of one of the Arabs, who had taken it from 
the pack of a fellow captive— .-ihc Arab, it appeared* 
having conceived it of little value (being opposed to 
the Chrislian faiih) and unwilling to be burihcned 
with it any longer, threw it upon the sand, with an 
intention of ther« leaving it My husband being 
made acquainted with Itis. determination, after mucfe 
persuasion, prevailed upon my master to pick it up, 
and convey it to me ; this he would by no nican€ 
have (being a strict Mahometan) had not my 
husband satisfied him by repeated assurances, that 
with this precicu? volume in my possession, I 
should be enabled to endure the hardships to which 
we were then subject, with more fortitude than | 
had done. My feelings on receiving so rich a pre= 

sent fi-om the hands of one, whose very nature was 
at enmity with our Christian religion, mny perhaps 
be conceived bat 1 cannot attempt to dascribe them 
-*-to form a correct ulea of my emotions at that 
time, let him, and him alone, who has full fehh iti 
the religion of Christ, and at vhose hands he has 
found mercy, and is not ashamed to confess him 
before the world, transport himself in iniagiDation 
to the country where I then was ; a distant heathen 
clime, a land of darkness, where the enemy of souls 
reigns triumphant, and where by an idolatrous race 
the doctrines of a blessed Redeemer are ireaie<l 
with derisioo and contempt ; and none but such 
wretches for his companions — thus situated, after 
having been more than two months deprived of that 
blessed book, which is so peculiarly calculated to 
afford him comfort and consolation in the trying 
hour of afiliction and woe, let him imagine himself 
presented with the sacred volume, and by one who^ 
had been taught to despise its precious contents 1 

Although my master, in presenting me with i\\ti 
ftook, which to me was of inestimable value, con- 
sulted only his own interest, yet I could not but feel 
grateful to hira for a treasure of more value, than 
any thing with whith he could then have presented 
me. As soon as it was in my possession, I turned 
to Jer. 31. 16, and read the following passage, which 
afforded me great consolation : « Thus saiih the 
Lord^ refrain thy voice from weepting, and thine ef^ 

from tears, for thy work shall be rewarded, and 
they shali come again from the land of the evemy/' 

But a very few moments were allowed me at 
this time to examine the contents of my new ac- 
quired treasure, aa the Arabs having completed 
their watenng, in less than an hour, were prepared 
to pursue their journey ; nor did J then suspect that 
our next place of encampment would be that at 
which I should not only be seperated from my dear 
husband, as well as from every one of my other fcl'« 
low captives, but the place where I should be doom- 
ed to pass many months in captivity I — my master 
liad indeed intimated to me the day previous, that 
we should ^n this day arrive at our place of destina* 
tion, but, as he had proved himseif a liar in a similar 
promise, which he had made many days before, I 
placed but liule reliance en his word in the prescftX 
instance — but such, however, proved to be the 

We travelled in an easterly direction over a sac- 
dy, although an extremely uneven country ftr abo<»t 
six hours, at the rate I should judge of about four 
miles an hour ; about sunset the Arabs commandit>flj 
the captives to halt, as they did themselves, they 
set up a most tiemendeus halloo, in which they were 
imnaediatcly answered by some one who appeared 
to be but a short distance from us. They now push* 
ed hastily on, and in a few moments, were met by 
six or eight Arabs, a part of whom were women, o^ 
Iboi, each being armed with a spear ten or twelre 

feet in length— tbete I soon fouml vvet^ii trj},- i-nus' 
ter's fiicnds, and a part cf them of his ©v/n family. 
They welcomed the return of thtir friends by rub- 
bing their limbs with dry sard> and then throwing 
handfrills of it in the air, aftfr whicii they saluted 
ihe captives by spitting on us, pelting us with stones 
and throwing sand in onr faces, acccmpanied with 
the vTord *^ fonta" (bad) — the femulss weie not less 
backward to insult me than ll^o menj and 1 think 
that 1 should have met with vety btiious injury, had 
I not been protected by luy master, at whose com- 
mand ihcy desisted, and appeared disposed Xo treat 
me "Aith less seveiity. One of them haviig snatch- 
ed my bible from under my aim, was compelled by 
Riy master to return it. We were now conducted 
to their Yilhge, ii 1 may be permitted so to term it, 
\rhjch was composed of only a few tents of a similar 
censtruction to iho&e which the Arabs carry with 
them in their excursions. The village was situated 
in a valley which had no more the appearance of 
fertility than the barren desert which we had passed, 
except a few shiubs and thorn bushes on which the 
camels were feeding. When we arrived, the Arabs 
who remained dt the tents were cDga^ed in their 
evening devotions — s<wne wcie kneeling down and 
i>owing their faces to the ground, and others stand- 
ing and nibbing the naked parts of their bodies with 
diy sand, in the mean time conSilantly repeating the 
ivoids « Allah Hookibar." 


Having finished their devotions, and the captives 
being secured in on old tent allotted them, the female 
camels were driven up by the women and milkid; 
A bowl containing about six quarts of the milk, 
mixed with two or three quarcs of barley flour, was 
presented to the captives to eat. This was the first 
time that I had ever tasted of camel's milk, and in 
my hungry state was I think the most delicious food 
lever tasted. My ptor fellow captives, reduced by 
hunster to skeletons, seated themselves around the 
bov^l, and having nothing but their hands to eat 
with, they devoured its previous contents in less 
three minutes. After this about three quarts of 
roasted snails, and about the same quantity of brack- 
ish water were preiented u«, which were as quickly 
devoured — indeed, to such a state of starvation were 
we reduced, that I believe half a roasted camel 
'.vould noi have been sufficient for us. While w^ 
were partaking of this repast, our masters (whoso 
appetites were probably nearly as sharp as ours) 
were busily employed in cooking a kid, the entrails 
of \Thich we were in hopes we bhould obtain, but iii 
this we were disappointed. 

I now had another opportuoity (and the last in A- 
^abia) to converse with my husband, who was ye; 
decided in his opinion that our seperation was soon 
to take place, and that without the kind interposi- 
tion of Heaven in his behalf, that seperation he was 
fearful would prove a final one. 13y hearing the 
Arabic 80 much spoken, he understood enough end 


heard enaugh to satisfy him that the village in which 
we then were, was the place of my master*s abode 
only,ofour company— that I bhould be retained here 
in captivity, and the remainder of them conveyed, 
probably, to more remote parts of the de«ert. He 
labored under the sume impression, that if his suf» 
ferings continued without alleviation, death must 
soon terminate thtm. Here he begged of me, that 
if I should be more fortunate, and Heaven should 
thereafter be pleased to eff#ct my deliverance, thai 
I would do all in my power to ascertain what had 
been his fate, and if still alive and in captivity, that 
1 would interest the BritisU Consul at Mogadore in 
Ms favor to effect his deliverance. 

It may excite the surprize of the reader that 
while my husband and his wretched companions 
were in such a state of despondency, I should sup- 
port my sufferings with so great a share of forti- 
tude. It may be easily accounted for, as there was a 
very material difference in our treatment — for whil6 
the other captives had been compelled to travel tiic 
whole journey, without shoes or stockings on foot 
through burning sands, and if they slackened their 
pace, were beat unmeicifully by their masters, I 
was conveyed on the back of a camel the whole 
distance^ withovu being compelled to walk five 
rods ; and when i had occasion to mount or dis" 
mount, the camel wan compelled to kn^el for mc ^ 
c.nd although I endarcd much fatigue at first from 
ihdr mode of riding yet when I became more used 


to the Arabian saddle, 1 suffered but very little in- 
convenieRce on that account ; indeed 1 set af. easy 
as in an arm chair. 1 was also most generally in- 
dulged each night with the privilege of occupying a 
corner of their tent, while my unfortunate fellow 
captives were compelled, with one or two excep- 
tions, to sleep in the sands, with no other covering 
butihe canopy of heaven. Hence, while these poor 
unfortunate people were by ill treatment as well as 
hunger reduced to mere skeletons — their whole 
bodies burned quite black by the powerful rays of 
the sun, and fiiled with innumerable sores : their 
feet blistered by the hot §ands, or severely gashed 
by sharp stones ; and tbeir heads, for the want of an 
epportunitv to cleanse them, overrun with vermiR, 
I, blessed be God, suffered but hltlc, but from hun- 
ger 'diid thirst. 

It was a pleasing thing to mc to see these un- 
fortunate captives, almost without an cxcepti»nj al- 
though but a few months before conducting as if 
birangers to t'nc gospel of Jesus, on their bended 
>;ncfcs, imploring the mercy and protection of an of- 
fended God, O that they may continue to be ever 
grateful to him for past favors, and learn to trust in 
Him for the time to come — surely then above most 
others ihey have reason to say *' it is good for us 
that we have been inPicied." By their request 1 
read many passages in my bible which seemed most 
appropriate to our situation, and which appeared to 
afford them great consolation'— among which were 

— 4i~. 

t!i^ following : — " Wait on the Lord, be of good coo- 
rage, aid he shall strengthen thine heart, wait I say 
on the liord. Psalms 20. *M shall not die but live» 
and declare the works of the Lord : The Lord hath 
chastized me sere, yet he hath not given me over to 
death." Psalms liS. 17, 18. "Cast, thy burthen 
upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee." Psalms 
55. 22. « I know O Lord that thy judgments are 
right, and that thou in faithfulness hath afflicted mc.** 
Psalms 119,75. 

As it was now quite dark we retired to rest upoD 
a few old mats thai the Arabs had thfown into •ur 
tent for us to repose on, but the apprehension of 
being sepcrated the ensuing morning deprived us 
of sleep ; indeed U\e whole night was spent in a state 
of anxiety not easy to conceive of. While we re* 
mained in this situation until day light, oar masters 
were the whole night engaged in debate, there ap- 
pearing, by what little we could undersiandt still 
some difficulty in deciding to whom each one of us 
belonged ; the dispute however at length subsiding, 
and the time of milking the camels having arriv- 
ed, our masters presented us with a pint of milk 
each, wann from the bea»t, which refreshed us ve- 
ry much^ Our tent was oow visited by the wives 
and children of the Arabs, >vho having iatisfied their 
cufiosiiy by gaziig at ua for half an hour, to express 
their disgUBt, the children were encouraged by their 
mothers to spit and throw sand in om* faces—as 


:.oon hewever as this was discovered by our masters, 
ihey were ordered off. 

The Arabs now commenced their morning de* 
votions, by bowing themselves to the ground> rub- 
bing tlieir faces, arms, legs, &c. with dry sand, as in 
ihc evening before, after which another kid was 
butchered and cooked, of which they gave us the en- 
trails. Having finished their repast, they btgan to 
saddle and load their camels, and in a few moments 
after, my unfortunate fellow captives were com- 
manded to come forth to pursue their journey — I too 
(as if ignorant of the intentions of my master) obey- 
ed the summons ; but no sooner had I stepped 
without the tent, than the barbarian forced me back 
with ihe britch tf his musket I 

The fears that 1 had entertained of being seperat- 
od from my poor unfortunate husband, and his 
■wretched fellow-captives, were now realized — it 
would be impossible for me to describe my feelings 
at this moment, and the reader can have but a fain'*, 
conception of them 1 1 begged that I might be in- 
dulged with the iiber-ty of exchanging a few words 
with my husband, previous to his departure : but 
•ven this privilege was denied m« ; in a fit of des- 
pair I threw myself upon a mat, where I remained 
in a state of insensibility until the captives were ftir 
out of sight. As soon a;» I had recovered sufficient- 
ly to support myself on my knees, I sent up a prayer 
to Heaven, implor'iDg her protection in my then still 
more wretched situtitien. I then laid myseil down to 


liest, hm could not sleep. My mind, which hau 
been hitherto remarkably strong, and supported me 
through ail my trials, disiresses and f rffcrincis, and 
in a great measure had enabled me o encourage 
and keep up the spirits of ray frequently despairing 
feilo^v^ captives, could hardly sustain me : My sud* 
den change of situation seemed to have relaxed the 
■^«?ery springs of my souU and all my faculties fell in- 
t^ the wildest confusion. 

Soon after the departure of the other captives, I 
was again visited by a motley group of the natives, 
who came merely to satisfy their curiosity, when the 
children were again encouraged by their parents to 
insult me by spitting and throwing sand in my face— . 
this was more than I could bear ; tears of anguish, 
which I had not the power to controul, now gushed 
from my eyes ; and my almost bursting heart vent- 
ed itself in bitter groans of despair I It soon appear- 
ed, however, that the abuse offered me by these un- 
Reeling wretches, was not countenanced by my mas. 
^r ; for on his arrival, viewing the sad coidilion 
Vnat I was in, with my eyes and mouih filled whh 
sand, he became greatly enraged and beat the vile 
authors of it unmercifully — and, indeed, the severe 
ehastisement which they then received, had a lasting 
and very happy effect ; for from this time, until the 
period of my redemption, I was not once again in- 
sulted in this way* 

My master having retired, soon returned with a 
Itowl of camcl^s milk, and another of the 6our siiti*' 

—51 — 

lar to that with which I had been before presCDted ^ 
and of which 1 made a very delicious meal, and 
returned thanks to God for the wholesome repast. 
in two hours after I was again visited by my master, 
accompaiued by a very aged, and the most respect- 
able looking Arab that i had seen ; who, having 
seated himself on a mat, accosted me with " how de 
do Chiistiano." I was indeed very much surprised 
to hear a language that I could understand, and was 
much pleased with the prospect of having found one 
who, as an interpreter, might be of essential service 
to me. The old man could speak but very broken 
English, but with the assistance of my partial know- 
ledge of the Arabic (which I had obtained duiing 
my captivity) we could convi^rie with each other 
tolerable wtL^ lie informed me that he belonged 
<o a village much larger than the one in which my 
fntxavri' ««^ Hivj cr,c::;.:ped, and many miles nearei* 
MoiGCcasii — that he had tibia ned his partial know- 
\jd^t of die Erglish lauijua^e by having once in his 
T^oss'w'Sbion thrtc cr four Engilab captives, who with 
a number of their cjai tiymen, had bfcii shipwreck- 
Ld on the coast. That they were vvith hrrn «ib&ut 
two years, when, with the exception of one that died, 
ihey were redeemed by the Suhan's friend at Mo- 

The old man was very inquisitive and arisious to 
learn of what vhe ship s cargo was composed, and 
whether there was much cash on board; how many 
days we had bocn travelling siuco we quit the wreck; 

and on what part the coast we were \rrecked~ hew 
•fiany persons there were on board, and if the whole 
•f our number were captured. To these questions 
5 gave corrcLct answers, which were interpreted to 
my master. 

I embraced this opportunity to ascertain, if possi* 
lie, what would probably be the fate of my husband 
and his unfortunat® companions ; and whether there 
Was any prospect of their gaining their liberty again 
— and what were my master's intentions with regard 
to myselt Agreeable to my request these e: qui- 
fies were made, and my master's replies interpreted 
to me by ihe eld man ; which 3pp»izcd me, that 
the prospect of my companions being soon redeem- 
f d was very great, as their masters resided much 
nearer the Sulian's.dom.iiuonSj when ^information of 
their captivity might be easily conveyed ; and as 
soon as the SuUan received the intbrmatir^. h^ 
would im-mediately communicate it to his friend 
(the Bntish Consul) at Swear.'h (^'ogado^e) who 
would dispatch a person with cash, to redeem them* 
That as regarded myself, it was ihe intertion of my 
mastei' to retain me in iiis own family, uniii he could 
find an opportunity to dispose of jne at a gcf d piice, 
to some one sf his countrymen bound to Swearah. 
I suggested to the old man the improbability of my 
living long if not more tenderly treated, and more 
bountifully supplied with wholesome foe^/d ; which^ 
l&eing interpreted to my master. I was assured, that 
ill behaved myself well, 1 should have my liberty to 

walk about the villaje wh-ere I pleased, and shouV 
always have my share of food. 

As 1 had slways been under serious apprehen- 
sion (if being deprived of my bible (which was now 
riy only remaining companion) or that I sliould be 
compelled to engage with them in their idolatrous 
worship of ike Supreme Being, I hinted to my in- 
terpreter, that although we believed in one and the 
same Grand Spiiit, yet there was a difference in our 
mode of worshipping Him : ar.d that v/hile they 
peaceably pursued their'Sj ! hoped that I siiould no^ 
be disturbed while engai^ed in mii^e ; and, what w»s 
c still greater confsideraiicn with me, I hoped tJiat 
rore might be permitted lo take from me my biblei 
but that 1 might be allowed to devote a few hours 
each day in perusing it. To this my master assent- 
ed^ on condition that I would never worship or pe- 
rirs^ ih© hor»k i}} hi* prtftnce, or that of any of his 
faniily ; f:)r as they believed Christians, fcnta (bad) 
he could not answer for the conduct tif his family if 
tliey f 'Ui.d me thus engaged. 

My master having i'lformcd me that tlie tent io 
v»hich i was then coi.fiiicd, was allotted me as my 
place of tesidencc until he should have an opportu- 
nity to dispose of m.e, new granted me liberty to 
i\'alk about the village where I pleased, hinting at 
the same time, that an attempt on my part to escape 
from him, would be punished *vith instant dejkth I aH 
ihis was interpreted to me by the old Arab, whoi, 
lTa\ ing promised rac that if he should meet wuh an: 

—5 4— 

Qpporiuniiv to send to Swearah, he would in form 
the Sultan of my situation, with my master withdrew, 
and left me to return thanks to Him, by whose kind 
interposilion I was so fortunate as to meet with onej 
in that barren and inhospitable desert, who was not 
only enabled to acquaint me cf what would probably 
be the uhimate fate of my poor husband, hut what 
were the views of myxnaster with regard to myself* 
Being now left entirely alfiie, 1 embraced the op* 
portunitj to peruse more attentively the aacsed vol- 
ume, which alone was calculated to yield consola- 
tion to a miserable captive like mysdf 5 a volume 
calculated not only to make me wise unto salvation, 
but calculated also to convey the most affecting 
views, and awaken the swbiinr)cst sensibilities on a 
thousand topics; & vo'umc full of cntejlaiiimefa as 
well as ins'.ructionj composed by a grea-t diversity of 
aUthcCS, and a}} ni th^m divniirjy (cUjjni. rTatiiiinilS 
1 see them one after another (in this momnt as in 
that of my tribulation) preseiuing for nr.y improve- 
menc, their respective writings wih an aspect of 
Jigaiiy and sweetness, combining, the dignity of, 
iiuth, and the sweetness cf beiievcknc* ; both de- 
rived from Him who inspired ihem lo be the teach- 
ers of mankind. Methinks 1 hear them severally 
addressing me in the name of God, with an authori- 
ty that can only be equalled with their miWness, on 
subjects the grandest and most important . What 
book is there but the bible, that contains so much to 
«nform, impresft* and delight reflecting minds, laid 

logether in a njanner so extensively atfepted to their 
various turns of understanding, tasie arid temper ^ 
which people of diffeient and distant countries, 
through a long succession of ages, have held in so 
much reverence, and read with so much advantage j 
where it is so difficult to determine, which arc more 
distinguished ease and simplicity, or sublimity «nd 
force, but where all are so beautifully united ; where 
there is so litllc to dis-^ourage the weakest spirit? 
if docile, and so much to gratify the strongest, if 
candid— where the frailties, disorders and distresses 
of human nature, are all so feelingly laid open and 
:he remedies, which Heaven provided had so ten- 
derly applied. 

And ought I to omit to declare that although 
misfortune hsd placed me in the hands of a barba- 
rous people, although scperaied from gvery chris- 
tian friend, and experiencing: all the hardships and 
privations peculiar to those who are so unfortunate 
as to lall into the hands of a merciless race ; yet, 
from this sacred vclume, I derived more comfort 
more sweet consolanon, secluded as ! was from thiB 
civilized world, than the most fashionable amuse* 
menis of the most populous cities in Europe, cuu'd 
have afforded mc ! Ah, ye fair ones of Britain, who 
doat on the parade of public assemblies, and sail a- 
long in the fnll blown pride of fashionable attire, of 
which the least appendage or circumstance must 
not be discomposed ; thoughtless of human woe : 
nscnsible to the ead condiiio.-i tf those like myself 

piiiing in many a solitary resideoce ofv^'ant—ye gau*" 
dy fiwUerers, '* wiib hard hearts under soft i^ai- 
nient," how much more briliiiuit and beauiiful 
would ye appear in the eyes of sairts and ar.gelS) 
Vftrc yow to employ your leisure hoins thus devoted ^ 
to the attaining a knowledge of that sacred scripture 
by which alone ye can expcci lo enjoy eterial life* 
J blu&h for man) of my country women possessed of 
understanding who h.ive never yet learned its no- 
blest and happiest use j in whose ears the circulated 
whisper of a well dressed crowd admiring their ap- 
pearance, is -d moie grateful sound than the praise of 
the ever living Jehovah! How much more praise 
worthy wouid it bc,\ve!e it your object only to ap- 
pear beautifal in the eye of God ; to be beloved by 
the Monarch of the Universe ! to be r.dmiited, if I 
may use the phrase, as so many fair and shining 
pillars into her temple belcw ; while he contcm- 
platei each wi'.n a pleasing aspect, and purposes to; 
remove them in due time to his sanctuary on higb^ 
v?here they ihall remain his everlasting delight, as 
A?ell as the never ceasing aduiiration of surrounding 
oherubims. Great Creator I what can equal such 
axailation and felicity ? And can any of you, my 
fair readers, be so destitute ©f every nGbler senvi- 
Oient as not to aspire after privileges like ihese ! Vd- 
aaoved by such ideas, can you turn away with impa- 
tience, and run to scenes of dress and show with 
the same Utile inglorious passions as before ; pre- 
ferrirg to the approbation of the Eternal ihe slight 

est regards iTrom the silliest mortrls r G^. thou 
senseless creature, and boast of jjcing admi.ed by 
the butterflies of a day ; see what they will do tor 
thee, when He, whose favor ihou negieclest, and for 
such shall cause thy " beauty Co consume like 
a moth," and thy heart to sink within thee like a 
stone. Imigination sh»idders at the thought of that 
day, when thou shalt ei>ter, trenabling-, forsaken and 
forlorn, those dismal regions wiiich the voice of adu- 
lation cannot reach, and nothing shall be heard but 
sounds of reproach and bi-H' phemy and wo ; where, 
stript of every ornament that now decks thy body, 
and suipt of lh?l body itself, thy mind must appear 
without shelter or covering, all deformed and 
ghastly, mangled with tht wounds of despairing 
guilt, an<i distorted by tin- violence of envenomed 
passions, while demons sh^il mock at thy misery. 
May the Almighty Redeemer b« pleased to save 
us all from a doom so dreadfiil I And my fair read* 
ers would you concur to prevent it ? Begin with 
restraining the ]o\e of ornament ; or ravh^r, turn 
that dangerous affection into a higher channel) and 
let it flow : it will then become safe, useful, noble. 
Here yoii will have scope for the largest fancy. To 
the -odorning of your minds Vi^e wish you to set no 
bouads. In dressing the soul for the company oi 
saintsi of angels, of God himself, you cannot em- 
ploy loo much time or thought. In a word, all the 
best things in the creation, together with the Creator 
K ^ 

bimself, concur in loving and honoring a beauteous 

But, to return — 

The liberty granted me by my master, to peruse 
the sacred scriirurcs, I faithfully improved at this 
tinie. I perused the whole book of Job, and derived 
much consolation therefrom, after which, to prevent 
its destruction by the natives, I buried ray inestima- 
ble treasure in the sand, and, unaccompanied by any 
one, I was now permitted to walk about the village, 
as ifi vras tetmed, which was composed of no more 
than ten or twelve wretched tents, containing from 
&ix to ten persons each. As a moie minute desciip- 
Uon of the inbabiiants — their employment, dicss, 
habits, customs, &c. may be gratifying Vo some of my 
readers, 1 will here record them as correctly as my 
recollection will enable me, from observations made 
during my captivity. 

The Arabs are of a tawny complexion; and when 
full grown, are -generally from five to six feet in 
height, with black sparkling eyes, high cheek bones 
snd thin lips— their Jiair is bisck* long and very 
coarse, and being occasionally clipped by the men, 
fney leave it slicking cut in every dirfction, fiora 
-.heir head, uhicb i;ives them a veiy savage appear- 
ance — their beards they peimit to grow to the 
length of seven or eight inches. The oidy clothing 
ihey is a piece of coars-.e cloth ef their own 
:r>anufaclure, wliich they tie round their vaslco, and 
'Ahich « xtends to their knees- The wcmen are in 

fpeneral uol so tall as the men, but in other respects 
resemble them ttry much. They appear in their 
natures as if created expressly for the country which 
they inhabit, as no human beings can endure thirst* 
bujiger, and faiigues better than they. When they 
rise in the morning, their first employment is to 
milk, their canjels, aiier which the whole village, 
youn.^ and old. (the women excepted) assemble to 
attend prayers and their other religious devotions* 
which they perform in the following manner ; they 
fiist strip themselves nearly naked, and then wiih 
dry sand rub every pai t of their bodies, after which, 
btTiding their bodies almost to the ground, they cry 
aloud ♦' Allah Hookiber"— « Aliah-Sheda Mabam- 
med 1"— at nii^ht before retiring to rest they again 
•sscmble to worsliip in the same manner. 

The cloth with which the Arabs cover their lenls< 
they manufacuire ©ut of camel's hair, which work is 
perfo: med by the women, in the following manner : 
having first spun the hair into thread, by means mt 
a haiul spindle, and- it havinggone through the •pe* 
ration of doubling and twisting, they drive into the 
ground two rows of pegs placing them about three 
feet apart ; the warp is tbert attached to the pegs 
and the filling is then carried by a shuttle over one 
thread of liie warp and under another, the women, 
in the mean time beating up the threads with a flat 
pitce Oi siick. Every tent is occupied by a §©pe« 
' le faniily, who have no other furniture but a mat, 
.l.ich serves ihcm for a bed, a small brasa kettle 

in wtricli they sometimes boil their provision, a tal- 
labash to hold thtir milk, and a wooden trough iti 
which they wat€T their camels. 

If the Arabs are provided v^ith water, they never 
fail to wash before they eat, but in the choice of ihcit 
food, they are less particular*, esteeming a mess of 
roasted snails preferable to any other dish. Thcif 
principal food, when encamped, is camel's milk, and 
occasionally they feast themselves on a kid, but never 
on a camel, unless in ease of real necessity, or when 
they have becQme too old to travel. Frcquentlyi 
however, in travelling the desert, the Arabs have 
been driven by hunger to such cxtrcnniiics, as to de- 
voiiT animals and insects of any kind in a state of pu- 

The Arabs have a plurality of wives to whom the^ 
are very scTere and cruel, exercising as much au- 
thority overthtoi as over their shivcs, ard compel- 
ling them to perform the meanest drudgeiy — their 
husbands consider them as their infcjiors, as b'-ings 
without souls, and will not permit ihtni to join in 
their devotions. W hile engaged in weaving they carrjr 
HheiT ififant children on thc:»' hacks, which are se- 
tured by a fold of a piece rf CiOih, which they wear 
fcr the purpose over iheir shoij'ders ; by beting k#pt 
constantly at work, the) become very filthy in their 
^rson.s and are covered with vernfjin. 

The children of the Arabs tre tauj;ht to read and 
write, and every f*aiily has a teacher /or that pur- 
j^oftC) bui ibr paper they substitute a pieee of smooth 


board aboui two feet square, and on these they are 
taught to make Arabic characiers with shai ;<ened 
reeds — they are easily instructed to read the Kvian, 
agiceable to their Mahometan faith, and are taught 
to wiiie verses therefrom. O, what a pity it is that 
they are not taught the superior excellence of the 
Christian religion, and to worship the blessed Je- 
3US, instead of the impure and idolatrous worship of 
objects prescribed by Mahomet — weep, O my soul, 
over the foriorne state of the benighted heathen ! 
Oh! that all who peruse this narrative would joia 
in their fervent rcquesis to God, with whom all 
things are possible, that these deluded people maf 
3oon be brought to worship the true and only JesuSi 
and X9 drink freely of the waters of salvation I 

Although my master had promised me that ¥ 
should receive a plentiful supply of food, 1 soon 
founpthat he was by no means in a situation to ful- 
fil hi» promise ; for with the exception of the small 
quantity of milk that the cam^els yielded, I found 
that they had nothing themselves to subsist on. for 
the most part of the lime but ground nuts and a few 
snails, which they found in the sand. Each family 
possess two or three kids, but they will sooner starve " 
than kill them, unless it is on particular occasions— i 
There were two wells of tolerable good water in the 
neighborhood, which was the only convenience that 
the misc^rable village could boast of. 

While s<-me of the wives and children of the 
Arabs viewed me with sconikful eyes, frequently ut- 

nrifif;. the word « fonta** bad, others appeared raone 
amicably disposed, and treated me with compassion. 
Thry all however appeared to be anxious ihat I 
should be taught to labor like themselves, and for 
t%e first week attempted to instruct me how to 
weave after their manner — but as 1 was sure that 
if they taught me to be useful to them in this way, 
I should be allowed but little time to rest or to 
peruse my bible, I did net prove so tractable as 
they expected to find me, and they finally gave up 
^1 hopes of rendering me serviceable to tbem in this 
"Way. I was however compelled every night aiid 
SRorning to drive off the camelS) to milk, a^.d to 
devote two or three hours each day in coUecling 
snails and groind nuts. 

After performing the duty allotted me, I usually 
retired to my tent, and spent the remainder ot the 
4ay in serious meditation, and in perusing the sacred 
scriptures. During my captivity 1 read my bible, 
the Old and New Tcbtament. five limes through 
^rom the begiiining to the end. O it is impossible 
f«r me to bestow too much praise on this sacred 
book — the consolation that 1 derived therefrom in 
the hour of tribulation was very great indeed ; it 
was that and that alone that now enables me to say, 
* b ^ sed be the hour ihat I became a convert in thfe 
land of the heathen 1'* O, how piecioas, how ex» 
aeedingly valuable is the word of God ! how exceed- 
ingly precious, is tiie religion i-f Jesus — how unlike 
ftjat of Mahomet) how different from any whicl^ 


Vhe carnal heart can invGnt!— O, it Waa this ihat sus^ 
tained me in the hour of affliction, in the day of my 

Five moiiths having nearly passed since my sep» 
eration from my poor husband and his unfortunate 
companions, and at the moment of despairing of be- 
ing ever redeemed from cruel bondage, I was one 
morning verv early aroused from my slumbers by ih^ 
hoarse voice of my master, commanding me to 
come forth ; the summons 1 instantly obeyed ; but 
my surprize mar be belter imagined than express^ 
ed, when on reaching the door of my tent I was pre. 
seated by my master with a letter directed to me 
and which I immediately recognized to be the hancl 
writing of my hushand I With my mafctcr was a 
stranger mounted on a mule, and although of a taw- 
ny complexion, had otherwise the savage ap- 
jiearance of an Arab. As soon as I came wiihin 
view of him, with a smile upon his countenance, he 
accosted me with »* how-de-tlo Chrisiiano, " that hd 
•■^as the messenger of pleading news, I did not 
doubt. I broke open the letter, and with emotions 
i-rat I oannot describe, read as follows j— 

Mogadore, Dec, 10, 1813. 
My dear Charlotte— 

This will inform you that 1 am no IcBger a slav^ 
—by the blessings of God, I once more enjoj my 
liberty — I was braught to this place with three of 
t»iy crew by the Arabs, a few days since, and hu^ 
txwireJy redeemed ooi «f their hands by our «xceV^ 

lent consul (Mr. Willshire) who resides here, f 
have informed kim of your situation, and he has 
kindly offered me his assistance in effecting your 
redemption and restoring you to liberty — the bear- 
er ct this letter (should he be so fortunate as to find 
you) is a man in whom you may place the utmost 
reliance, and who will conduct you in safety to this 
j»lace, should your master be pleased to comply with 
the proposals of Mr. Willshire, to whom he has di- 
rected a letter written in Arabic, offering seven hun- 
dred dollars for your redemption, provided he con- 
veys you in safety to this place. 

I am affectionately yours, &c. 


Having finished this letter, so great was my joy, 
that I could not refrain from shedding tears, and 
it was some time before 1 could become sufficiently 
composed as to beg of my master permission to re- 
tire to my tent, wher6, on my bended knees, 1 might 
return thanks to an all- wise and beneficent Creator, 
through whose goodness there was now a prospect 
of my being once more reatored to my husbaud and 

The terms offered my master being such a.s he 
Was pleased to accept of, the necessary preparations 
were immediately made for our departure, and the 
morning ensuing^ my master and myself being 
mounted on a camel each, accompanied by the 
Moor (for such he proved to be) mounted on his 
!liule) set out for Mogadore, a distance of more thstn 

fieven hundred miles. We were nearly twenty days 
in performing the journey, the greatest part of the 
way being; a sandy desert, yielding little for man or 

Were I to record the occurrences of each day 
while on our journey, it would swell a Tolume to 
too great an extent. I would rather con6ne myselj 
t© a few particulars which I esteem of the most im- 
portance to the reader, and which is calculated to 
jive him a correct idea of m? situation, until tho 
flay of my redemption — and that of the country 
through which we passed, My master loaded the 
camels with as much proviiion as they oould tf^ell 
carry, which, with the little they were enabled to 
collect on the way, served us until we reached a 
more fertile country. My master seemed disposed 
to treat me with more humanity than ever, and of 
whatever provision was obtained, if there was scarce- 
ly sufficient for a moderate meal for one, I was 
sure to receive one half j nor was time refused me 
each morning btfore we set teuton our journey, to 
return thanks to Heaven for the protection afforded 
me through the night, and to read a chapter ifi my 

After travelling ten days, we came to the country 
inhabited by the Moors, and passed several walled 
villages, enclosing some well stocked gardens. The 
further wfi proceeded on our journey, the more the 
fertility of the country seemed to increase. Wc 
ptssed large fields oi Indian coro and barley^ and 


garxJens filled with most kinds of vegetables, and tiie 
surrounding country presented beautjful grcves oC 
date fig, pomegranate and orange trees. The A- 
rtbs and Moors not being on the most friendly tcrms) 
and the latter being as great enemies to Christianity 
as the former, we might have starved amidst plenty., 
had we not fortunately a Motr for a companion, 
vjthout whose aid we could not have gained admit- 
tance into any ef their villages. 

In fifteen days from that on whicli we left the vil* 
fcge of my master, we entered the dominions of the 
Emperor of Morocco^ and two day»- after arrived at 
Santa Cruz, the most considerable frontier town of 
Ihe Emperor's dominions. We were met at the en* 
trance of the town by a large body of Moors of al4 
ranks and ages, and while some of the most respec* 
table appeared disposed to protect me, fiom another 
4llass 1 received every insult that they eould devise 
ineans to bestow upon me. My master, on attempt- 
ing to defend me from the outragje of these merciless 
vretches, received but little belter treatment hinr- 
S«lf, as the Moor* harbor the most contemptible opi* 
»ion of the Arabs of the interlori My master, 
lifowever gained permission of the Governor, to tar* 
ry in the town until the ensnirg morning and 
promised us his protection. I was conveyed to a 
small dirty hut, situated at the extreme part of the 
^wn, and therein barricadoed as securely as if I 
had been ©ne of their greatest and most formidable 
enemies in existence, f ought m>% however fail tc 

— S7— 

aeation, that I T7as here for the first time siDCre I 
became a captive, pleniiiully suppiitti with ^cod an^ 
"Wholesome provision in abunoiance The town a- 
Njunded wiih fish of a most excellent quality, which 
they understood the ciH)king of equal to Europeans, 
and of which mey allowed me more than 1 could pos. 
sibly eat ; with an equal paoportion of sweet bailey 
bread. Although 1 felt grateful for such liberantyj 
yet 1 could not but view its authors as nothing more 
lh:.< i.»b;i uments in the hands of the Supreme Being 
«nv)loyedto alleviate the sufferings of one of his most 
^itioruaate creatures, vvho dt»y and nigiit had un- 
cc. siogly solicited his protection. O, 1 have infi- 
Dite reason to confess my obligation to that Almigh- 
;y rower who so wonderfully presei^ed «nd sup» 
poi.ed me in the day of bondage. — ^.!ay my future 
iifc cviijce my gratitude, and every thought be 
brought into subjection to the Father of spirus*— 
surely *♦ a sots I redeemed demands a life of praise." 
Early the ensuing morning we quit Santa Cruz, 
and proceeded on our journey, travelling through^ 
beautiful cultivated country. The sea on »iur Icf^ 
•uvcrcd with boats of various sixes, was full in vicw« 
Aljout 3 o'clock the day ioliowing, havn^g leacL^ 
Ihe summit of a mountain which we had been since 
inuTning ascending, the Msvr suddenly cried out^ 
pointing to ll^ east. *' see, see Mogadore i"— the 
l^wn was indeed iair in view, and did nol appeac 
to be more than iirtecD or ei^^lneen mile* d^ufil 

The harbor was foon in view, and Ihe flags of 
ships of different nations fioa'ioE^ iVom their niizen 
tops v^iJis vi wed by me with i' ;!;f ujultd pleasure— 
il is in>pvjssible tj Siate nriy iVeiiLi^s at this moment 
on the reflection that in a few houis I should in all 
probahJiity be enabled to meet my hubband^ and en- 
joying I hat liberty of which we had been many 
monihf* deprivfcd. 1 could not fail to look up to 
heavtn vvih adoration, while my heart swelled wilh 
indiscribable sensations of graiiiude and love, to the 
alUwise, all powerful, and ever merciful God of the 
Qnivcrse, ivlio had conducted me thiough so many 
dreadful ecenes of danger and su fie ring I had^con- 
troUed the passions and disposed tlie hearts of the 
barbarous Arabs in my favor, and was iiualiy about 
to restore me to the at ihs of ray husband 

As we approached the citjr we were met by con- 
aidt^rabie bodies •f the Moors, whom curiosuy had 
brought from the ciiy to ?iew a Chrisiian female 
slave— mary appeared disposed to offer me insult? 
Iiut were prevented by those who apparently p«sses- 
aed a greater share of pity for one Vvho was really 
a ftpecta^le of distress. At half past three o'clock 
we entered the city, and was conducted by a com- 
pany of soldiers immediately to the house of the 
JBiiiish Ccnsul Mr. Wiilshire met us at the door, 
andhad this truly benevolent and humane man be^^n 
my own brother, be Cf;uld not have given mc a more 
welcome reception — he actually shed tears of joy at 
the prospect pf having it soon in his power to res- 

tore me to the arms of my husband, who he inform- 
e<l me had been impatiently awaiting my arrival, 
and had been daily at his house to ascertain if any 
information had been received of me since the de- 
pariare of the Moor dispatched is quest of me. 

The news of my arrival soon i cached the ears 
of my husband, who with the remainder of the cap- 
tives who fead been redeemed and had not left the 
country, hastened to the Consul's house to see me. 
Happr meetiig ! It was acme time before my hus- 
band or myself could exchange a syllabi- with each 
other— the joy which we both felt in being enabled 
to meet again and under circumstances so different 
from those under which we parted, deprived us for 
some time of the power of speech ; indeed if there 
was ever a moment in which it became an unfortu^ 
natc people like ourselves to offer up prayers of 
thanklulness to an adorable Creator, for his mercy 
and goodness in so long protecting us during our 
»any months captivity, and for firially efTecting our 
redemption out of the hands of the unmerciful Arabs, 
tbis was the moment- It is certainly the Almighty 
who is the bestower and giver of all our good 
things— all our mercies come to us by a divine 
providence nnd ordering ; not by casualty or acci« 
ilent — neither arc they of our own procuring and 
purchasing—it is God who returns the capiivity of 
Zion. '* When the Lord turned again the captivi- 
ty of Zion, Wf were like them that dream : then was 
^r mouth fiilcd with laughter, and our toni'ue witH 

singing.'^Then said they among the heathen, tljre 
Lord has done great things for them. The Lord 
hath done great things for us ; whereof we are glad '. 
Turn again our captivity, O Lord." Psalm cxxvi. 
The very heathen acknowledge the good things be- 
stowed upon and done for the church, to be from 
God ; and God's own peeple acknowledged Him 
for tlie mercies granted, and humbly supplicated 
mercies from Him for the future. It is God who 
gathers the outcasts of rsrael : ft is He who takes 
away the captives ef the mighty, the prey of the 
terrible ; who conteads with them that contend with 
us, and saves our children. It is God who dispens- 
eth aiid gathers again. Sometimes God, in a more 
Immediate and extraordinary way and manner, con- 
fers his blessings and mercies ; sometimes in a more 
ordinary and mediate way ; but His providence is to 
be acknowledged in all '; not one single mercy comes 
to us, without a commission from that God by whom 
aiir very hairs are numbered. 

Scarcely any of Mr, Willshire'a domestics who 
'Aitnessed the happy meeting of myself and hus- 
band, could refrain from tears. The poor sailors 
who had been so fortunate as to obtain their liberty 
seemed really overjoyed at the prospect of my being 
once m«»re restored lo the bosom of my family.— 
Each seemed anxious to relate to m.e a narrative of 
his sufferings and treatment which he received from 
the Arabs from the moment of our seperation/ un- 
*\\ that of the'r redemption. While some appeared 

ia f.ave been tieatc<1 with a small degrse of feniC/^ 
others bore t ho marks of the most savage cruelty 
and certainly could not have survived much linger 
under such suffeiings, had they not been providen- 
tiat5y redeemed out of ihe hands of the unmerciful 
barbarians. By the account given me by my hus- 
band, of his deprivations and sui?erings from the 
time of our seperation, it appeared that he had tared 
no belter than the rest^tvi^o days after my scpera* 
tion from them, the Arabs reached ariother village, 
which was the place of residence oF three or four 
tnore of the conftpany, and where another seperatioii 
of the captives look place. My husband, however 
being no^ •f this party, he was still compelled to 
travel on under the most disagreeable circumstances/ 
he became so M'eak and emaciated, and his facul- 
ties so rapidly declined that he could scarcely hear ob 
see, and a vertical sun was so contiRually dartiig 
his beams so intensely upon him» that f«r the last 
two days of his journey he could scarcely move one 
foot before the other. But, haviag at length sue* 
ceded in reaching the village of bis master, by the 
intercession of on« oi his sons in my husband *s be- 
half, he was treated with more humanity, until an 
opportunity fortunately presented in which he was 
enabled to forward a line to Mogadore, by a man 
informing Mr. Willshirc of his situation, as well 
as that of his fe!iow captives. On the receipt oi 
my husbaiid's letter, that gentleman, wno is so re- 
nowned icr his humanity, did not spare a moment to 

efiTect his redemption, and adopted sucft meana as 
were attended with success ; and by his means seves 
more of the unfortunate captives obi^ined their lib- 
erty, and returned with us to England in the same 
ship, whiGh,_.lhanks to the Supreme Disposer ol all 
events, they wer* enabled to do, after having been 
held in captivity for nearly six months, in which they 
had suffered hardships and trials seldom known to 
human nature* 

The hospitable Mr. Willshirc inaisted on our re- 
maining at his house, until such time as he could 
]5^rocure passages fop us to Europe. There indeed 
was not an European or white man of any nation, in 
the harbor, who did not come to see us, and who gcii» 
erousiy supplied us with such articles of clothing,&c. 
as we stood most in need of Having refreshed our- 
«elves by these e:ood people's bounty, und meeting 
^ith so many christian friends at this place, we began 
to feel new life, and almost to think ourselves res- 
IDred to our former strength and vigour ; though in 
reality we were still in a most deplorable condition* 

In justice to the Europeans that we found at Mo- 
gadorc, 1 must say that we received from them 
Blkrks of the most tender interest, and the most 
generous compassion ; I think 1 can never suificient- 
ly express the sense that I shall ever entertain for 
the Fiiidness and humanity of Mr. Wilisliire, whose 
whole employment it appeared to be fci several 
days to contrive the ber.t me ns to restore ua to 
health aLd strength. By him 1 was advised to baths 

©very morning, and to confine myself to goat's milk, 
excepting a few new laid eggs, together with med- 
erate exercise. After a week, he allowed me to take 
sorae light chicken broth, with a morsel of the wing. 
By the mcaHs of this diet, my health and strength 
were in a great measure restored. 

The Almighty, by whose will I had probably ve- 
ry justly suffered, was at length pleased to deliver 
me into the hands of a beaevolent man, whose kind- 
ness 1 experienced in every instance. What would 
^ave been our condition if we had met with a person 
of less sensibility; who thinking he had sufficiently 
answered the duties of his office in redeeming us o«t 
of the handb of the Arabs, had leit us to shift for 
ourselves, with regard to ail other necessaries ! I 
can never reflect without the mosi grateful sensibi- 
lity, on the goodsess and charity of him whom 1 am 
proud to claim as my countryman, and who certain- 
ly is an honor to the country which gave him birth. 
At our depurture, when my husband attempted t© 
Kiake acknowledgments for his bounties, '* I mus^ 
^eg leave (said the Consul) to interrupt you on this 
subject; ycu have deserved every thing I did for yoa> 
because you needed it; and I ha ^e done nothing 
more in your instance, than I should have a right to 
expect myself, in the same circumstances. But my 
consideration for your distress (conrinued he) on^ht 
to extend beyond tht immediate exigencies of yoav 

Having continued at Mogadore until we had per* 


fectly recovered our health and strength, a passage 
wai' procured for us to Lircrpool ; but we did not 
qttit the Barbary coast, however, until 1 had the 
pleasure of cononcmning with God. There was a 
amali English church at Mogadore, of which our 
excellent friend Mr. Wiilshire was the principal 
founder ; for among the other qualifications of this 
good man, 1 am happy to say that 1 found him a true 
believer in the religion of Jesus, How sweetly cal- 
culated were the gospel ©rdinances here performed 
to enliven the hearts of believers, surrounded aa they 
are by a race of idolaters, on whom no light of re- 
velation beams ; where there are no other sanctua- 
ries — no communion tables — no bread and wine to 
peniind them, that a Saviour shed his blood on Cal- 
vary for them ! O thou blessed Redeemer, for 
poor lost sinners, thou who didst commission thy 
disciples of old to preach the gospel to every crea^ 
turc ; wilt thou send forth laborers, make the wil- 
derness a fruitful field, and catise the wilderness to 
blessom like the Rose. 

Having taken an affectionate leave of our frienda 
St Mogadore, on the 1st of February, 1819, we were 
in readiness to embaik for our native country. Be- 
side my husband and myself, there were six ottiers 
of my husband's original crew who had agreed to 
work their passage. In forty days fr«>m that on 
Vrhich we bid adieu to the coast of Barbary, we were 
all safely landed ©n the shores of Old England, and 
1h€ day succeeding I was restored to the arms of 

— r5— 

my friends in Liverpool, who joined with me iiv re- 
luming thanks to the Almighty for my wonderful 

Here Mrs. Bradley concludes her affecting nar- 
rative.— Subsequent accounts from Mogtdore state 
thai five more of tke crew had found their way back 
to that place by the interposicion of Mr. Willshirc. 

[The Publisher here begs liberty for the edification 
of hi« readers, to subjoin a concise narrative of Ara- 
bia, of the laws, custoflis and habits of the Datives, 
&c. Ii is copied from (he v/oiks cf authors who 
have themselves been held in capti-it)) by the Arabs, 
ijid whose statemeBis relating tlicre'.o may be dC' 
perded on as facts.- — 


Arabia is in the quarter of Abia ; and, as de- 
scribed by historians and geographers, lies, in its 
gre-atest exfeyit, betvveen the i2ih and 35th degree of 
N. lat. and the j6th and 6iat of E. lontj. From 
its aitaation betweea the Isthmus of Suez, the Red 
Sea, ifce river Euphrates, the Persian Gu'ph. the 
Bay of Ormus the Slreights of Babel-Mandcl, 
and the Indian ocean, it may be looked upon as 
a peninsula, and that one of the largest in the 
woild. Its first division, as we find by sciipture, 
was into Arabah and Kedem : Ptolemy dirided 
ii into three parts— Sioney Arabia, Desert Aubia, 
aftid Happy Arabia. 

As a great part of this country lies under the 

t9>rid zent) and the tropic ol Cancer pa sses over 
Happy Arabia; the air is excessively dry and hot* 
A great part of it is a lenesome desert difersified 
only with plaint covered wiih sand, and moun- 
tains of naked rocks and precipices ; nor ever. 
Unless sonnetimes at the equinoxes, refreshed Vfiih 
rain. The sands of the deserts, when agitated by 
the vyinds, roll like the troubled ocean, and some' 
times form huge mountains, by which whole Ca- 
talans have been buried or lost. Wells and foun- 
tains are exceedingly rare. Those vast plains of 
fand are, however, interspersed here and there 
T»iih fruitful spots, rebeaiblieg so many islands in 
the midst of the ocean : these being rendered ck- 
Ircnicly delightful by their verdure, and the more 
so by the neighborhood of those frightful deserts, 
the Arabs encamp upon them ; and having con^ 
sumed every thing they find upon one, remove to 
another. The southern part of Arabia is blest 
with a fertile soil, which has acquired it the title of 
Happy : there are producsd tiie valuable gums, 
which are carried to all parts of the world ; rich 
spices and fruits, and corn and wine. 

In Arabia stands Mount Sinai, memorable as 
the place where the law was given to the Israelites: 
^t the foot of it is a beautiful plain, nearly nine 
Zpiles in length, and above three in breadth, ou 
tvhich the Israelites eacamped. From Mount Sinai 
n»ay be seen Mount Hareb, where Moses keyt il\t 

fiocks of Jethro, his father-in-law, when he saw tha 
burning bush. 

The Arabs are distinguis!ied by historians, as that 
remarkable people, of whcin k was foretold, that 
tbey should be invincible — '* have their hands a* 
gainst every man, and every man's hands against 
them." They have inhabited the couatry that they 
at present possess, almost from the deloge, without 
intermixing with other nations. In the early ages^ 
tlie Ishmaelites were one of the most considerable 
tribes in that country: andKimshi, an oriental his^ 
lorian, insinuates, that they were originally the 
children of Hagar, by an Arab, after she had left 

According to the oriental historians, the Arabs are 
^ be divided into two elasses, viz the old lost Af 
rftbs» and the present. Coneerning the former there 
are some traditions, too obscure to b« related here* 

The present Arabs, according to their own histo* 
riansi are sprung: from Kahtan, the sanne with Jok- 
tan, the son of Eber ; and Adnan, descended in e 
direct line from Ishmael the son of Alwaham. The 
former of these they call the genuine ©r pure Ar^bs 
and ihe latter, the naturalized or insitilious Arabs. 

Joktan, the son of Eber, had thirteen sons, wh© 
sttme lime after the confusion of languages settleil 
Iq Arabia, extending themselves from Mesha to Sc- 
phar, a 'oountainous place in the south e^^stern pari 
of that, peninsula. According ia the Arabian hi.sto» 
ri^ns, he had 3^i so»iy all of whom left Arabia, and 

went into India, except two, viz. Yarab and Jcrham-j.. 
the former of whom, they say, gave the came both 
to ih&ir country and language. Sshmael and his 
mother Hagar having been dismissed by Abraham, 
entered into the wilderness of Pai-an, as related in 
the book of Genesis. The sacred historian informs 
lis, that during his residerce in the wilderness, he 
mr.rried an Egyptia?i ; and the Aiabian writers £ay„ 
that he al?:o took to wife the daughter of Modad, 
king of Hcjsz, lineally descended fiom Joiham the 
founder of that king^dom- By the E^^yptian he was. 
probably the father of the Scenite or Wild Arabs ; 
ard havtng' allied himself to the Jorhamites, he is 
considered by the Arabians as the father of ihe 
greatest partofibeir nation. 

B.ut a particular hibtory of the Arabs is asiJe frcfnt 
the purpose of this appendix Tfe propagation cf 
a new religiou, antJ the founding of a vast empire, 
by their countryman Mahomet, arc subjects, wilh 
which every one is arquaimed. Their national cha- 
racter, which may apply to the nation at large, will 
undoubtedly be trisly tlrawn for the. wretched inhab.- 
itants of a barren coasi, seperated from society, and 
living wholly under the wants of poverty, and the 
influence cf evil passioBs : — *' On the seacoast (says 
Guthne) they are mere pirates, and make prize of 
every vessel they can master, of whatever Dalion." 

The perpetual independence of the Arabs " has 
been the theme ©f praise (says Mr. Gibbon) among 
strangers and Raiive&i The kiwgdf>m of Yemen^, it is 

— r9 - 

trae, has been successively subdued by the Abys- 
5ymans, the Persians, the sultans «f Egypt, aad the 
Turks ; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina have 
repeatedly bowed under a Scylhian tyrant ; and the 
Rc-man province of Arabia embraced the peculiar 
wilderness in which Ishn^ael and his sons must have 
pitched their tents in the face of their brethren. Yet 
these exceptions are temporary or local ; the budy 
of the nation has escaped the yoke of the m»st 
powerful monarchies : the arms of Stsostris and 
Cyrus, of Pompcy and Trajan, could never aciiieve 
the conquest of Arabia : the present Sovereign oi 
the Turks may exercise a shadow of jurisdiction : 
but his pride is reduced to solicit the fiiendship of 
a people, whom it is dangerous to provoke, and 
fruitless to attack. The obvious causes of their 
freedom are inscribed on the character and «ountry 
©f the Arabs. Many ages before Mahomet, their 
intrepid valour had been severely feii by their neigh.- 
bours in offensive war. Tlie patient and active vir- 
tues of a soWier are insensibly nursed in the habits 
and discipline of a pastoral life. The oare of the 
sheep and camels is abandoned to the women ol 
the tribe ; but the martial youth under the banner 
of the Emir, is ever on horseback, an^ in the field 
to practise the exercise of the bow, the javelin, and 
the scymetcr. Th« long memory of their indepen- 
dence is the firmesi;^ pledge of its perpetuity ; and 
succeeding generalions are aj)im..ied to pro\€ their 
descetit, and to maiiiiain their inheritance. Theif 

^meatU ^euds are suspended on the approach ci^ 
?K)mmon enemy ; and in tbt jr bbi hostiiuies against 
the TurkS; the caravan ol Mecta was attacked and 
pillaged by fourscore thou sand of the confede/ates. 
Wh?n ^hey ativarjce lo battle, the hope of victory is 
in the f.'Oht ; and in the rear, the asburance of a re- 
treat. Tiieir horses and camels, who in eight or 
ten days cdu pel form a march of four tr five hun- 
dred miies, disappear befoie the conqueror ; the 
secret v/aters of the desert elude his search ; and 
bis victorious trtops are consumed with thiist^ 
hunger and futigue, in the pursuit of an invisible foe^ 
T7ho scorns his eiforls, and safely reposes in tfee 
heart of the burnij|; solitud©. 

" The slaves of domestic tyranny may vainly eK- 
Tiltin their national independence: but the Arab is 
personally free ; and he enjoys in serae degree, ths 
benefits ef society, without forfeiting the prei'oga» 
tive» of nature. In every tribe, supei-sliiion or grat- 
itude, or fortune, has exalted a particular family a- 
fcoTC the heads of their equals. The dignities of 
Shaik and £mir invariably descend in this chosen 
lace I b«t the, «rder of succession is loose an4 |»re« 
darious ; and the most worthy or aged of the oot>le 
Jtinsmcn are preferred to the simple theugh import* 
ant office of eomposing disputes by their advice, and 
guiding vaiour by their example. The monaentar^ 
junction of several tribes produces an army ; their 
more lasting union constitutes a nation ; aiid the Sb- 
l^reme Chid, the Ewjir ol Emirs, whose bafiBer rs 

— 31 — 

displayed at their head, may deserve, in the eves o/ 
siraugers, the honors of ihc kingly name. Ifihc 
Arabian princes abuse their power, tUey are quickly 
punished by tkc desertion of their subjects, who 
had been accustomed to a mild and parental juris- 
diction. Their spirit is free, their steps are uncon- 
-fined, the desert is open, and the tribes and families 
are held together by a mutual and voluntary com- 

** In the study of nations and m«n, we may ob- 
serye the causes that render them hostile ov Iriendly 
to each other — that tend to narrow or enlarge, to 
mollify or exasperate, the bocial character. The 
separatiou tf the Arabs from the rest of mankind 
has accustomed them to confound the idea of stran- 
ger aqd enemy ; af d the poverty of the land has in- 
troduced a maxim of jurihprudence, which they be- 
lieve and piaciise to the present hour : they pre- 
tend, that in the division of the earth the rich and 
fertile tliir.aies were assigned to the other fcranches 
of the human family: ai;d that the posieiity of the 
outlaw Ishmael might recover, by fraud or force, the 
portion of inheritance of which he had been unjustly 
deprived. According to the remark of Pliny, the 
Arabian tribes are equally addicted to theft a.nd 
merchandize j the carcivans that traverse the dt- 
seitsre ransomed or pillc.ged ; aed their neighbors, 
since the lemotest times of Job and Sesostiis, have 
been the victims of their rapacious spirit. It a Ce- 
doween diicovers from afar a solitary liavellerj he 

pieJes furioiisly against him- crying, with a loud 
voice, *» Undress ibf^elf thy aunt (my wife) is with* 
out a garment.'* A ready submission entilks him 
to mercy ; resistance will provoke the aggressor, 
and his own blood must expiate the blood which he 
presumes to shed in legitimate defence. A single 
robber, or a few associates, are branded with their 
genuine name ; but the exploitt of a numerous 
band assume the character of lawful and honorable 
war. The temper of a people, thus armed against 
mankind, was doubly inflamed by the domestic li- 
cence ot rapine, murdtr, and revenge. In the con- 
stitution of Europe, the right of peace and war is 
now confined to a small, and the actual exercise 
to a much smaller list of respectable potentates ; 
but each Arab, with impunity and renown, might 
point his javelin against the life of his countryman, 
The union of the nation consisted only in a vague re- 
semblance 01 language and manners ; and ii> each 
Gomraunity the jurisdiction of the magistrate was 
mute and impatient. Of the time of ignoranc* which 
preceded Mahomet, i700 battles are recorded by 
tradition ; hostility was embittered with the rancour 
of civil faciicn ; and the recital, in proae or verse, 
of an obsolete feud, was sufficient to rekind:e the 
same passions among the descendants of hostile 
tribes. In private life, every man, at least every 
family, was the judge and avenger of its own cause. 
The nice sensibility of honor, which weighs the in- 
.-^ult rather than the injury, sheds its deadly venom en 

iho qu arrets of the Arabs : the honor of their wo- 
men, and of their btards, is most easily wounded : 
9i\ indecent expression, a contemptuous word, can 
he expiated only by the biood ©f the offender ; and 
such IS their patient inveteracy, that they expect, 
whole months and years the opportunity cf revenge. 
A fine or compensation for murder is familiar to the 
barbarians cf every age : but in Arabia tke kins- 
men of the dead are at liberty to accept the atone- 
ment, or to exercise with their own hands the law of 
retaliation. The refined malice of the Arab relus- 
es even the head of the murderer, substitutes an in- 
nocent to ihe guilty person, and transfers the pen- 
ally vven to the best and most ccnsiderable of the 
race by whom they have been injured. If he falls 
by their hands, they are exposed in their turn to 
the danger of reprisals ; the interest and principal of 
ihe \)!oody debt are accumulated ; the individuals of 
either family lead a life of maiiee and suspicion ; 
and fifiy years may sometimes elapse, before the 
teirible aec<;unt of vengeance be finally eeilled. 
This sanguinary spirit, ignorant of pity or forgive- 
ness, has been moderated however, by the maxims 
of honor, which require in every private encounter 
some equality of age and strength, of numberi and 

" But the spirit of rapine and revenge was at- 
tempered by the mildest influence of tradt and U- 
israture. Tne solitaf-y peninsula is encompassed by 
vWc iroit civilized nations of the ancient world j the 

stlerchant is the friend of mankind ; aod the aanual 
caravens iwtported the first seeds of kn^wledeje and 
politeness into the cities, and even th« camps of the 
desert. The arts of grammar, of metre, and of rhe- 
toric, were unknown t© the free-born eloquence of 
the Arabians; but their penetration was sharp, their 
fancy luxuiiant, their wit strong and sententious, and 
Ihrir more elaborate compositions were addrcs. 
scd with energy and effect on the minds of their hear- 
ers. The genius and merit of a rising poet were 
celebrated by the applause of his own and the kin- 
dred tribes. The Arabian poets were the historians 
and moralists oi the age ; and if they sympathised 
with the prejudices, they in?«pircd and crowned the 
virtues of their countrymen. The indissoluble u- 
nion of generosity and valor was the darling theme 
of their song ; and when they poirted their keenest 
satire agains* a despicable race, they affirmed, in the 
bitterness of reproach, that the men knew net how to 
give, nor the women to deny. The same hospitali- 
ty which was practised by Abraham, and celebrated 
hy Komer, is still renewed in the camps of the A- 
rabs i thf ferocious Bedoweens, the terror of the 
desert, embrace, without enqwiry and hesitation, the 
stranger who dares to confide in their honor, and to 
enter their tent; his treatment is kind and rctpeciful ; 
he shares the weahh or the powers of his host ; andj 
after a needful repose, he is dismissed on his way, 
"mxh thanksj with bletsings, and perhap?' with gifts.*' 

The rich Arabs have one, two, or three slavea, 
male and female j ihese arc allowed to sleep on the 
same mat with their masters and mistresses, and are 
tfeated in all respects like the children of the family 
in regard lo apparel, &c. — they are not, however, 
permitted to marry or cohabit with the Arab women, 
under pain of death, and are obliged to take care of 
the camels and follow them, and to do other drudg- 
ery, such as getting fuel, &€. but thoy will not obey 
the women, and raiie their voices higher than their 
master or any of his cfeiidreti in a dispute^ and cor- 
sequtntly are considered smart fellows. They mar- 
ry among their own colour while they are staves 
with the consent of their masters, but the children 
remain slaves. After a slave has served his master 
faithfully far a long time, or has done him some es- 
semial service, he is made tree : he th^n enters into 
all the privileges that the free Arabs enjoy, and can 
marry into any of their families, which he or she 
never fails to do, and thus become ideniifitd with the 
families of the tribe in which they were slaves, and 
may ri»e lo the very bead of it. The negroes are 
f^eneraJly active and brave, are seldom pmished 
with stripes, and those who drive the camels do not 
jscruple to milk them when they are (birsly, but take 
care not to be discovered : they are ext^ emely cun- 
liing, and will steal any thing they caD gel at to eat 
or drink fr«m their masters, er indted any one else. 
If they are caught in the act of stealing, they are 
emly ihieat»necl, and promised a flogging tiie next 

iirne. The father of the family is its absolute chief 
in all respects, though he seldom ii^flicts punish- 
ment: his wives and daughters are considered as 
inerc slaves, subject to his will or caprice ; yet they 
take every eppoitumty to deceive or steal from hina : 
he deals out the milk to each wiih his own hand, nor 
iare any one toiich it uniil it is thus divided : he 
always assists in milking the camels, then puts the 
xniik into a large v/odden bowK which has probably 
Wen in the family for ages : some of the largest 
Kowls will contain five gallons; they are frequently 
split in evevy direction, and the s{»lit parts are fast- 
ened together with small iron plates, with a rivet at 
each end, made of the same metal. All the milk is 
thrown into the great bowl ; then, if in the old man's 
opinion, theie is a sufficient quantity for a good 
^rink round, he takes a small bowl, (of which sort 
they generally have two or three,) and washing 
$ind rubbing it out with sand, he begins to distribute 
the milk, by giving|to each grown person an equal 
share, and to the children in proportion te their size, 
nieasuring it very exactly, and taking a proportion- 
ate quantity to himself. If there is any left, be has 
it put into a skin, to serve for a drink at nooB the 
next day : if there is not a sufficient quantity of 
milk for a good drink all round, the old man fills it 
,up with water (if they have any) to a certain mark 
in the bowl) and then proceeds to serve it as before 

— sr— 

Th^ camels are driven out early in the morning' 
and home about dark, when they are made to lie 
down before the tent of their owner, very near, with 
their tails towards it ; a doubled rope with a large 
knot in one end is then put round the knee joint 
when the leg is doubled in, and the knot being then 
thrust throuf^h ihe double part at the other end, ef« 
fectually fastens the knee, bent as it is, so that th« 
camel cannot ^ei up to walk off, having but the uso 
of three of his legs. This kind of feecket is ahp 
fixed on ihe knees of the old camels that lead ihs 
drove ; and the others remain quiet when their lead- 
ers are fast ; in this manner they are suffered to lie 
until about midnight, when they have had time to 
cool and the milk to collect in their bags — the becket 
is then taken off, and as soon as they get up, the net 
which covers the bag lo prevent the young ones 
from consuming the milk, is loosened— tllis is fast- 
ened on by two cords, ihat go over the back of the 
camel, aid are kpoUed together. As each camel is 
milkedj the ib carefuily replaced, and she is mada 
10 lie down in the t-ame p'ace again ; here they lie 
until daylight, when all the camels are made lo get 
up ; a liule milk is then drawn from each, and the 
young ones are sufftied to suck out the remainder} 
vvhen the net is put in iis place agaia, not to be re- 
moved until the follow itjg midnight. While the 
head uf the family is busied milking the camels and 
suckling the young ones, assisted by all the malesj 
.the wife ai.d females are striking and tolUing up the 

tent', selecting the camels to carry the stuffj anji 
biinging them near, where they make them lie down 
and pack on them the tent and all the other mate- 
rials. This being done, they fasten a leather or skin 
basket, about four feet wide, fitted wiih a kind ci" 
tree, like a saddle on the back of one of the lamest 
camels, in which the women place the old men and 
fvumen that cannot walk and the young children}, and 
frequently them^iclves, and proceed forward accord- 
ing to their daily custom. The women take cars o^ 
the stuff and the camels that carry it, and of the 
child I en ; the other camels are driven off by slaves, 
if ihey have any, if not by some of the boys, and 
kept where there are some shrubs to be found, until 
i.iifljt. The old man, or head of th^ family, geiie- 
rally precedes the women and stuff, after having de- 
scribed to lh£m the course they are to steer. I1& 
sets off on his camel, with his gun in his hand, at a 
full trot, and goes on until he finds a fit place in 
which to piich the tent, when he gives the informa- 
tion to hia wife, who then proreeds with all possible 
dispatch to the spot, unloads her camels, and lets 
them ge ; iheo she spreads her tent, puts all th,s 
stuff under it, clears away the smuir stones^ and 
spreads her mat, arranges her bowls, hangs up the 
skins containing water, (if they have a.iy,) on a kind 
of horse or frame that folds together, &c. &c. They 
ftari long before sun- rising in the morning, aud cal- 
culate to pitch their tents at about four o'clock h 
the aftcrnoo49j if they can find a convenienl spol#.. 


Cftherwise a liltle sooner or later. Whea one fan^iiy 
sets off, the whole of that part of the tribe dwelling 
near, travel on with thera. As soon as the place 13 
agreed on, the raen go out on their camels with their 
guns, different ways, to reconnoitre, and see if they 
have enemies near. 

T-he Arabsvvho inhabit ihc great western desert^ 
arc in their persons about five feet seven or eig!»t 
inches in height ; and tolerably well set in their 
frames, though lean ; their complf xion is of a dark 
olive ; they have high cheek bones and aquiline 
noses rather prominent : lank cheeks, thin lips, and 
rounded chiss ; tkeir eyes are black, sparkling, an4 
iiiieliigent ; they have long black hair, coarse, and 
very thick ; und the men cut theirs off wiih their 
knives, to the length of about bis or eight inches, 
ar.d leave it sticking out in e-very direction from 
iheir head. They ail wear loag bcafds — their limbs 
are straight, and they can endure hunger, thirst* 
hardships, and laiigues, probably better than any 
other people under heaven; their clothing in gen- 
eral is nothing more than a piece of. coarse clotK* 
made of camel's hair, tied round their waists, hang- 
ij]g neasly. down to their knees; or a goat skin se 
fastened on, as to cover iheir nakednees ; but some 
tfihe rich ooes wear a coveiing of iijien or cottcu 
cloth over their shoulders to their knees, hanging 
something like a shift or shirt, without slecvcsi and 
souie have besides, a haick or woollen blanket about 
iliir i'^Qi viidoy aftd four yards. longj which ihoft 


vrap about them ; but this is the case only with ike 
rich, and their number is very small. These haicks 
and blue shirts, they get from the empire of Moroc- 
co in exchange for camels' hair and rstrich-fealhers ; 
the only commodity in which they can trade. The 
Arab women are short and meager ; and their fea- 
tures much harder and more ugly than those of the 
men : but they have long black hair, which they braid 
and tuck up in a bunch on their hcads» and fasten it 
there by means of thorns. Tliey generally wear 
strings of black beads Tound their necks, and a white 
jircular bone, of three inches in diameter, in thcie 
hair, wiih bands of beads or oiher ornaments around' 
their wrists and ankles. Their cheek bones ar^ 
high and prominent ; their visages and lips are 
thin, and the upper lip is kept up by means of the 
two eye {eelh. They take great pains to make 
these teeth project forward f and turn up quite in 
fiont of the iiiiC of their other fore-teeth, which are 
as white and sound as ivory. Their eyes are rouwd, 
black, \QYy expressive, and extremely beautiful, 
particularly in the young women, who are general- 
ly plump and iuscivious- The women wear a dress 
of coarse canif Is* hair cloih, which ihey manufac- 
ture in the same way they make their tent cloth : it 
covers their shoulders,, leaving iheir arms and breasts 
naked ; ii is sewed up on each side, and falls down 
nearly to their knees ; they have a fold in this like 
a sack, next heir skin on their shoulders, in which 
fhey carry their little chiiilren j and the breasts ottb© 

middle aged women become so extremely long, lan^ 
and pendulous, that they have no olher trouble in 
nursing the child which is on their backs, when 
walking about, than to throw up their breasts over 
Ae top of their shoulders, so that the child may 
apply its lips. 

All the Arabs go barefoot; the children, both 
male and female, before they come to the age of pu- 
berty, run about entirely naked, and this exposure to , 
*he sun is one great cause of their black colour^ 
'/he males are all circumcised at ihe age cf eight 
years, not as a religious rile, but because it is i(. jnd 
necessary as a preventative of a disease incident to 
the climate. The men are very quick active and 
intelligent— naore so taken collectively than any 
other that ever were kuown to inhabit the 
different parts of the world before visited. They 
are the lords and masters in their families* and 
are very severe and cruel to their wives, whom they 
treat as mere necessary slaves, ihey do not allow 
them even as much liberty as they g'ant to their ne- 
groesj either in speech or action ; they are consider- 
ed by the men as beings without souls, and conse- 
quently they are not permitted to join in their devo» 
tionsj but are kept constantly drudging at something 
or other, and are seldom allowed to speak when 
men are conversing together. They are very fil- 
thy in their persons, not even cleansing themselves 
with sand, and are covered with vermin. Tbc con- 
tinual harsh trcatmcnti and hard diudgcry to yiWicb 

they are subject, have wprn off that fine edge of cle, 
licacy, senhioility. and compassion, so naiuial to 
iheir sex? and iransfonnf d >htm unfeeling and 
unpityiDg beiLgs, so much so, tl;ai xhc'ir ©onduct to* 
wards such of thos* urfortunalc pv-rsons as fall into 
their hauds brutal in the extreme, and betray 
the extinction of every huniar.e arid jfene!©us 

The Arab is high spirited, brave, avaricious, r2» 
7engeful : and, strange as it may appear, is at tlie 
same lima hospitable and compassionate ; he is 
proud of being able to maintain his iRdependencCj 
ihougb on a dreary desert, and despises those who 
Greso mean and degraded as to subitiij to any gov- 
ernment but that of the Most High. He struts a. 
Wut sole master of what wealth he possesses- always 
yeady to defend it, and believes himself the happiest 
of men, and the most learned also : handing down 
the tradition of his ancestors, as he is persuaded, for 
thousands of years. He looks upon all othe'r men to 
fee vile, and beneath his notice, except as merchan- 
dize ; he is content to live oh the milk of his cam- 
els, which he takes great care to rear, and thaiikft 
l)is God daily for his cofitinua) mercies. They con- 
sidered themselves as much above their christian 
captives, both in intelUci and acquired knowledg^e, as 
tlic preud and peni^tred West India planter, (long 
acGUstomed to rule over slaves) fancies himself a«> 
bove the mcanttst rcw ntgro just brought in chaiits 
from tbe coa^ •f Africa. Tae^ ocvt^r correu their 

'tta!e children.'but the females are beat wiihoni mer- 
cy. The men are not cruel to prisuueis than they 
Cor.sider them obstinate, and al>7ays give them a 
small share of what they themselves have tosub^ht 

Marriages among Ihcm are frequent, and are per- 
formed as follows:— -when a young man sees a ^iri 
that pleases hire, he asks her of her lather.and she be* 
'comes his wife without ceremony. Polygamy is al- 
lowed, but the Arabs of the desert have but very 
seldom more than one wife, except the rich ones, 
\?ho have need of servants, when they take another 
wife, and sometimes a third. 

They all learn to read and write; in every family 
ordivisiorj of a tribe, they have boards of from one 
foot square to two feet long, and about an inch 
Ihick by eighteen inches wide ; on these boards the 
ohildrcn iearn to write with a piece of poirued reed, 
they have the secret of making ink, ai.d ihat of a 
very black dye ; when a family of wandering Arabs 
pitch their tents, they set apart a place for a school^ 
this they surround with broken shrubs in the de- 
eert, to keep off* the wind— ^M^re all the boys who 
have been circumcised, ol from eight to eigtiteeo or 
twenty yeai s old, aitend* and are taught to read and 
*j6) write verses from the Koran, whicd is kept in 
manusciipt by every family on skins: they ■© 
tiieir ciiaracters from right to left — arc very par- 
ticular in the formation of them, and r-ak»r tl»cir 
Isnes Tery straight ; ail the ciiUdren atund irom 


chcice or ainusement. — The teacher, it is saldi 
never punishes a child, but explains the meaning 
of things, and amuses him by telling talas that are 
both entertaining and instructive; he reads or re- 
hearses chapters from the Koran or some other book; 
for they have a great many poems, &c written also 
on skins : when the board is full of writing, they 
rub it off with sand, and, begin again. The 
hoards on which they write appear to have lasted 
for ages; they are sometimes split in many places, and 
are kept together by small iron plates on each side, 
iixed by iron rivets ; these plates, as well as their 
rude axes, of which each family has one, are made 
of tempered iron by the smiths, vyhich belongs to 
and journey with the tribe— they work with great 
dexterity. They burn small wood into charcoal, and 
any it with them on camels : their anvil is made of 
a piece of iron a foot long, and pointed at the end— 
this they drive into the grownd to work on ; the head 
of the anvil is abonl six inches over ; they make 
their fire in a small hole dug in the ground for that 
purpose, and blow it up by means of two skins curi- 
ously fixed ; so that while one is filling with air, 
they blow with the other, standing between them— 
^viih a hand placed on each, they raise and depress 
them at pleasure. By means ef a clumsy hammer, 
an anvil, and hot irons to bore v/iih, they manage to 
Sk the saddles for themselves to ride on, and to make 
knives end a kind of needles, and small rough bladcd 
«xes. This f 3rge is carried about without the small 

est inconvenience, so that the Arabs even of the 
^csart are better provided in this respect than the 
the Israelites were in the days of Saul their King, 
Samuel, chap. xiii. verses 19 to 23^ — " Now there 
was no smith in all the land of Israel ; for the Phi- 
listines said, " Lest the Hebrews make them swords 
or spears." An undutiful child ©f civilized parents 
might here learn a lesson of filial piety and benevo- 
lence from these barbarians ; the old people always 
received the first drhik of milk, and a larger share 
than even the acting head of the family when they 
\Tere scanted in quantity ; whenever the family mov- 
ed forward, a camel was first prepared for the old 
rsan, by fixing a kind of basket on the animal's 
back ; they then put skins or other soft thinjjs into 
■t, to make it easy, and next lifting up the old man, 
they place him carefully in the basket, with a child 
or two on each side, to take care of and steady him 
during the march, while he seems to sit aod hold on 
more from long habit than from choice. As soon as 

hey stopped lo pilch the tents, the old man was 
taken from his camel, and being carefully seated, 
drink of water or milk given him, for they take 
rare to sjive some f^r that particular purpose. When 
the lent was pitched, he was carefully taken up and 
;>lacc:l u^iaVir it on iheir mat, where he could g© t6 



The Arabian camel, called by the ancients anfl 
by naluralists, the dromedary, is, perhaps the most 
singular, and, at the same time one of the most 
useful animals in nature He is, when full grown, 
from eight to nine feet in height, and about ten to 
twelve feet in length from the end of his nose to the 
root of his tail ; his body is small, compared with 
ilis heighth : he resembles in shape that of a goose 
more than any oiher animal, being long and slender, 
and it seems to grow out of the lower part of his 
body between his fore legs ; he raises his head to 
Ihe height ol his back, poking his nose «ut horizon- 
tally, so that his face looks directly upwards, and hi« 
Dose bone so high as to be on a line with the top of 
the hunch en his back ; his head h small, his ears 
aiiort ; bis eyes are of various colours, from a black 
to almost a white j bright, and sparkling with in- 
stinctive intelligence, and placed on the sides of hia^ 
l^ead in such a manner, that he can see behind, and 
On every side at the same lime. His lail is shorti 
and hangs like that of a cow. with- a small buirJi ol 
hair at the end ; his legs are long and slender, 
though their joinis are stout and strong ; his feet 
are divided something like those of an ox ; but he« 
has no hoof except on the extreme points of the 
toes ; in other pa»ts they are only covered with- 
akiu; and are soft and yielding^ the soles oi his feet 

are not thicker than stout sole leather : be is gene- 
TaUjr of a light ash color, but varying from that to a 
i^ark brown, and sometimes a reddish brown : ma- 
ny of them are also marked with white spots or 
stripes on their foreheads, and on ^ifFereat partsof 
their bodies j the hair on his body is short and fiae, 
^ike the finest of wool, and serves the Arab instead 
of that ncces&ary article with which they make th»ir 
tent cloth and coarse covering ; it is pulled or else 
falls o^ once a year ; the hair about his throat an4 
on the hump is -eight or t»n inches in length, and 
hangs down ; he has a high bunch on his backi 
which rises from his shoulders, and comes to a blant 
poiot at about the centre of his back, and tapers off 
to his hips ; this bunch is from one to two feet high 
abeve the back bone, and not attached to it nor to the 
frame of the camel, S9 that in skinning him the A- 
rabs tak» off the bunch with it which is larger or 
smaller, as the camel is fat or lean. He v/ho rides 
on a camel without a saddle (which saddle is pecu- 
liarly constructed so as not to touch the bnnch) ia 
forced to get on behind it, where the breadth of the 
body keeps the rider's legs extended very wide, 
while he is obliged to keep himself from slipping off 
over the beast's tail, by cienching both hands into 
the long hair that covers the bunch. 

The camel is a very domestic animal ; he lias 

down on his belly at the command •f his mastci^ 

folding his le^s under him something like a sheep ; 

liitic he r»^?ij;:i*j? torect.i\c his rider oi his burcl^H 


>^98 — 

^vhen he rises at a word, and proceeds in the way 
he is driven or directed, with the utmost docility and 
cheerfulness, while his master encourages hina by 
singing. The Arabs use neither bridle nor ha'.'er, 
but guide and manage the camel (whose head is 
quite at liberty) by mc^ns of a stick, assisted by 
word* and of ihe tongue ; havino^ one sound to urge 
him on faster ; one to make him go slower ; and a 
third, which is a kind of cluck with the tongue, to 
make him stop. He chews his cud like an ox, and 
has no fore teeth in his upper jaw : but his lips are 
long and rough, so that he nips olTlhe rugged shrubs 
without difficulty, on which he is obliged to feed. 
The camel seems to have been formed by nature to 
live on deserts ; he is patient, fleet, strong and hardy ■» 
can endure hunger and thirst better than any other 
animal, can travel through deep and dead sands with 
great ease, and over ihe flinty parts of the desert 
without difficulty, though it is h^rd for him to go up 
or down steep hills and mountams, and to travel on 
'Riuddy roads, as he slips about and strains himself; 
^ut he is sure footed, and walks firmly on a hard 
Jdry surface, or on sand. We have never made the 
natural history of animals our study, and it cannot be 
expected that we should be acquainted with the par- 
ticular formation of their' interior parts; but we will, 
\enture to say a few words in regard to the camel 
* without fear of contradiction from any one who shall 
see and examine for himself, having assisted in 
butchering several ©i these animal*. 

The camel is described by naturalists as having, 
besides the four stomachs common to ruminating an- 
imals, a fifth bag, exclusively a reservoir for neater 
where it remains without coi ruptinij or mixing with 
the other aliments; this is a mistake — for the bag 
that holds the water contains also the chewed her- 
bage, and is in the camel what a paunch is in an ox. 
Into this bag all the rough chewed herbage enters, 
where it is Roftened by the waier, throvvn again into 
the mouth, chewed over, and passes off by another 
canal, and the foeees are so dry, that the day after 
they are voided, the Arabs strike tire on them in- 
stead of touchwood or punk. 

The camel is considered by the Arab as a sacred 
animal ; with him he can transport a load of mer- 
chandize of several hundred weight wiih certain- 
ty and celerity through deserts utterly impassable 
with any other animal. On hiin the wandering 
Arab can flee wiih his family fr@m*any enemy across 
the trackless wasie one hundred miles •? more in a 
..iDgle day if he wishes, and out of the reach of his 
pursuers, for the desert like the ocean neither re- 
tains nor discloses any trace of the traveller. Its 
milk is both food and drink for the whole family, 
and when they have a sufficiency of that article, they 
ar& contented, and desire nothing more: with his 
camel the Arab is perfectly independent, and can 
bid defiance to all the forces that uncivilized foes can 
send against him ; with him they collect in siroBjr 
bands, all well armed) and fail upon the caravans. 

*— 1©0— 

alaying without mercy all they ean •verpoweF, and 
divide their spoil : should they meet a repulse, they 
can flee and soen be out of sight ; they also attack the 
settlements and small walled towns in the cultivated 
country near the desert, and if strong enough, des- 
troy all the goods of the slain they carry away on 
their camels, and return to the desert, where no 
force can pursue them without meeting with certain 

The camel's motions are extremely heavy and 
jolting ; his legs being long, he steps a great dis- 
tance, and though he appears to go slowly when on 
a walk, yet he proceeds at about the rate of four 
miles an hour, and it is difficult for a man to keep 
pace vviih him without running. When the camel 
t.ots, he goes vei^ fast ; the small trot being about 
six, and the great ones about eight or nine miles an 
hour — this they can do with great ease with light 
J»ads for a whole day together, and will replenish 
Iheir stomachs at night with the leaves and twigs 
of the sullen thorn bufh, tl at is barely permitted 
by nature to vegetate in the most dreary and deso* 
late of all regions. The fiesh of the camel is good 
for food ; and that of the young ones is esteemed 
preferable to that of the ox. They bring forth a 
single young one at a time, and generally one© 
jn about two years, their time of gestation being a» 
bout one year. When the camel is in a heat, he is 
extremely vicious, so that none dare ceme neaf 

The Arabs arc in general Mahometans ; some of 
them are pagans. This country was the birth place 
of Mahomet. He taught the necessity of beliefing 
in God, the existence of angels, the resurrection and 
future judgment, and the doctrine of absolute de- 
crees. The duties which he enjoined were prayer, 
iive times in a day, fasting, charity, and a pilgrimage 
to M«cca. Their religion forbids the use of images, 
though anciently they were idolaters, and the same 
rites, which are now practised by Mahometans, 
were invented and practised ky idolaters. From 
Japan to Peru, all round the glebe, sacrifices have 
prevailed ; the votary has expressed his gratitude 
©r his fear by destroying, or consuming in honor of 
the gods; the most precious of their gifis. The life 
of man is the most precious oblation to deprecate 
any calamity ; therefore the altars of Phoenicia and 
Egypt, of Rome and Carthage, have been pollated 
with human gore. The Arabs, like the Jews, abstain 
from swine's flesh, and circumcise their children. 

The B miaos are a sect tolerated here. They pro- 
fess to love every thing, which breathes, to assist 
every thing which is in pain, to abhor the spilling of 
b!ood, and to abstain tiom food, that has Ci Joyed life. 
1 he Europeans trust ihem to do all their business 
with the Arabs, and they are always fous d honest. 
The Wahabees, a new sect, who are mi.iiary con^ 
queroTs, have risen here, changh:g their religioni 
and foi bidding pilgrimage to Mecca, so that the 

•-102 — 
mighty fabric of Mahometanism is rapidly passihg- 

About twelve milli®n five hunrlred and fifty theu- 
sand poijads of coffee are annually exported. The 
Europeans take 1,500,000 ; ihe Persians 3,500,000 » 
the fleet from Suez takes 6 500>000 ; Hindcstan, the 
Maldives, and the Arabian colonies in Africa, take 
500,000 pounds ; the caravans IjOOO.OOO* The ave- 
rage price of the cofiee is about ten cents and four 
mills per pound ; the dearest is about 12 cents, la 
Arabia none but ♦he rich citizens taste of coffee j the 
common people are content with the shell and husk. 
These have the taste of coffee without the strength 
or bitterness. 

Arabia carries on a profitable traffic with Aby- 
slnia, and other parts of Africa, with Europe, and 
the East Indies, 

Mecca is the principal city and was supported 
by the resort of pilgrims, 70,000 of whorn visited that 
place every year. But the recent conquests of the 
Wahabee have put a step t© this custom, which was 
the life-blood ot Mahometanism aud of Arabian com- 
merce. The buildings are mean. It is 34 miles 
from Judda, lat. 31, 45 east. It i« an inland town, 
Surrounded by hills, a day's journey from the Red 
sea. It is the huly city of Mahometans ; no chris- 
tian is allowed to enter it. The temple of Mecca 
has 42 doors, and is said to be nearly 67© yards iiv 
length, and 570 in breadth. In the centre is a paved 
court> en all sides of which are cells for those who 

— 163—' 

oons«crate themselves to a life of devotion. The 
door is covered with plates of silver ; before it is a 
curtain, thick with gold embroidery. This sacred 
Caaba is the principal object of ihc pilgrim's devo- 
tion, and is open but two days in sx weeks ; one for 
the men, and one for the vvonnen. Its walls are marble, 
hun^ routed with silk, and lighted by four silver 
lamps. Twelve paces from the Caaba, theypietcnd 
to show Abram's sepulchre. After perfotming their 
devotions, the pilgrims retire te a hill whcie, af^er 
various ceremonies, they are pronounced hadgies or 
saints, and suppose heaven is bure. 

In the Caaba is one relic, sacred to the Arabs as 
the cross is to the catholics. It is a black stone, 
brought by GaDiiel from heaven for theconstruc- 
4ioB of this edifice. Tnis stone, they say, was first 
of a clear, white colour: dazzling the eyes ot peo- 
ple at the distance of four days* jo'Utney, By weep, 
ing so long and so abundantly fur the sins of man- 
kind, it became opaqwc, and finally black. This ten- 
der hearted stone, every Mahon.etan mubt kiss or 
touch every time he goes reund the Caaba. Tluy 
5'jppose the temple founded on the stone upon v hich 
Jacob rested his head at Bethel, when Hying licta 
the wrath of Esau. Aden is a seaport of Aiabje 
Felix, on the coast of the. Indian ocean. It i as a 
good harbor, and was formerly a mart of extensive 
commerce, which is now incoasiderable. It is the- 
capital of a country to which it gives name. Medi- 
na is a small, poor place, sui rounded by walls. In 

— 104-.- 

the temple is the tomb of Mahomet, surrounded by 
curtains, aod lighted wiih lamps. 

Bedow»ens is a modern name by which the 
wild A;abs are distinguished, who inhabit ihe de- 
serlfe, who live in tents, and \\.ho are perpetually re- 
moving from one place to another, Such is the si- 
tuation in which nature has placed these people— 
ui^der a sky almost perpetually inflamed and with- 
out clfeuds, in the midst of immense and boundless 
jylains, without houses, trees, rivulets, or hills — as 
to make of them a race of men equally {singular 
in their physical and moral character. This singu- 
larity is so striking, that even their neighbors the 
Syrians regard them as extraordinary beings, espe- 
cially those tribes v?hich dwell in the depths of the 
dtbtrt, and never approach the towns. When in 
the time of Shaik Daher some of their horsemen 
«4a me as far as Acre, they excited the same curi- 
Obity there, as a visit from the savages of Americs) 
would in Europe. Every body viewed with sur 
prifcethfjse men, who were more diminutive, meagre 
and swarthy, than any of the known Bedoweensj 
their withered legs v. ere only composed of tendons 
ard had no calves ; their bellies seemed to cling tt 
#ieir backs; and their hair was -frizzled almost a* 
much as that of th;j Negroes. They, on the other 
hand, were no less astonished at every ibing they 
saw ; thry co>>id neither coQceive hovr the houses 
and ;iijinarets could st.'J»d erect, nor how men ven- 
tured to dwell beneath vhem, and always in the same 

— 105— 

spot; but, above all, they were in an ccstncy or. be- 
holding the sea nor coulrl they comprehend what 
that desert of water could be. In general the Be- 
doweens are small, meagre, and tawny ; more so, 
however, in the heart of the desert than on the fron- 
tiers of cultivated country ; but they are always of a 
darker hue than the neighboring peasants. They 
also differ a«iong themselves in the same camp; 
the Shaiks, that is, the rich* and tho'r attendants, 
being always taller and more corpulent than the 
Arabians of the common class ; M. Volney has 
seen some of them above 5 feet 6 inches high| 
♦ hough in general they do not exeeed 5 feet 2 inch- 
es. This diff«rence is only to be attributed to their 
food, with which the former are supplied more abund- 
antly than the latter. The lower class live in a state 
©f habiiual wretchedness and famine : it is a facfj 
that the quantity of food usually consumed by the 
greater part of ih«m does cot exceed six ounces a 
day : six or seven dates soaked in melted butter, a 
little sweet milk or curds, serve a man a whole day; 
and he esteems himself happy when he can add a 
small quantity of coarse flour, or a Utile ball tf rice. 
Meat is reserved for the greatest fesiivals ; and 
they never kill r kid, but for a mariiage or a fune- 
ral. A few wealthy and generous Shaiks alone can 
kill young camels, and eat baked rice with their vic- 
tuals. In times of dearth, tlie vu'gar, always half 
fajTiished. do not disdain the most wretched kinds of 
ffiod ; and eai locusts, rats, lizards, and serpent^ 

feroiled &» briars. Hence are they such plunder- 
ers of the cultivated lands, and robbers on the high 
roads ; hence, alsa, their delicate constitution, and 
their diminutive and meagre bodies, which are ra- 
ther active than vigorous. 

The Bedoweens have as little industry as their 
wants are few. They have no books, and are igno- 
rant of all science. All their literature co».sists in 
reciting tales in the nianner of the Arabian Nights* 
Entertainment. In the evening they seat themselves 
on the ground ; and there, ranged in a circle round 
a little fire of dung, their pipes in their mouths, and 
their legs crossed, they sit a while in silent medi- 
tation, till on a sudden one of them breaks forth 
with, ** Once on a time" — and continues to recite 
the adventures of some young Shaik and female Be* 
doween ; he relates in what manner the youth first 
got a secret glimpse ©f his mistress, and how be be- 
came secretly enamored of her; he fninately des- 
cribes the lovely fair : boasts her black eyes, as large 
and soft as those ©f the gazelle ; her languid and 
impaisioned looks ; her arched eyebrows, resembling 
two bcws of ebeny ; her waist, strait and swpple as 
a lance; he forgets not her steps, light as those of 
\he young filly ; nor her eye-lashes, blackened with 
• k«hl : n©r her lips, painted blue ; nor her nails, 
tinged with the golden colored henna; nor her 
breasts, resembling two pi^megranaies; nor her 
words, sweet as honey. He j^recounls the suffcr- 
ingi ©f the young lover, so wasted with desire and 

passion, that his body no longer yields any shadov/. 
At length, after detailing his various attempts to see 
his mistress, the obstacles of the parents, the inva- 
sions of the enemy, the captivity of the lovers, &c. 
he terminates, to the satisfaction of the audience, 
by restoring them united and happy, to the paternal 
tent, and by receiving the tribute paid to his elo- 
quence, in an exclamation of praise, equivalent \o 
Admirably well I 

The Bedoween is a shepherd,\vithout all the inno- 
eence of that character. The facility of passing rap- 
idly over exiensive tracts of country, renders him a 
wanderer. He becomes greedy from want, and a 
robl^er from greediness. A plunderer rather than a 
warrior, he possesses no sanguinary courage ; he at- 
tacks oiiiy to despoil ; and if he meets with no re- 
sistance, never thinks a small booty is to be put in 
competition wiik his life. To irritate hina, you 
must shed his blood ; in which case he is as obsti- 
nate in his vengeance, as he was cautious in avoid- 
ing danger. 

Notwithstanding: their depredatiens ©n strangers^ 
among -hemseives the Bedoweens are remarkable 
for a good faith, a disinterestedness, a generosity, 
which would do honor to the most civilized people. 
What is there more noble than the right of asylum, 
so respected among all the tribes ; a stranger, nay, 
even an enemy, touches the tent of the Bedoween, 
and from that instant his person is inviolable. It 
would be reckoned a disgraceful meanness, an inde- 

Jible shame, to satisfy even a just vengeance at tke 
expense of ho£>pitality. Has the Bedoween consent, 
ed to eat bread and salt with hh guest, nothing can 
induce him to betray him. The Bedoween, so ra- 
pacious without his camp, has no sooner set his fott 
within it, than he becomes liberal and generous; 
•what little he possesses he is ever ready to divide — 
lie has even the delicacy not to wait till he is ajked— • 
\?hen he takes his repast, he affects to scat himself 
at the door of his tent in order to invite the passen. 
gers ; his generosity is so sincere, that he docs not 
look on it as a merit, but merely as a duty, and he 
therefore readily takes the sj^me liberty with others. 
The unqualified liberty enjoyed by the Bedoweens 
extends even to matters of religion, his true, that 
on the frontiers of the Turks they preserve, from 
policy, the appearance of Mahometonism ; but so re- 
laxed is their observance of its ceremonies, and so 
liltlie fervor has their devotion, that they arc gene- 
rally considered as infidels, who have neither law 
cor prophets. They even make no difficulty in say- 
ing, that the religion if Mahorret was not made for 
them — " For (add they) how shall we make ablu- 
tions, who have no water ? How can we betiow aims, 
w*ho arc not rich ? Why should we fast iii the R^ra- 
adan, since the whole year with us is one continual 
fast ? And what ne» cssity is there for us to make 
the pilgrimage to Mecca; if God be pre&ent everf 
where ? 


A^-NS-— .' <»t^.